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Full text of "Transactions of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society"

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LIBRARY OF THE 



JVIflSSRCHtl SETTS 

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Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2012 with funding from 

Federally funded with LSTA funds through the Massachusetts Board of Library Commissioners 



http://archive.org/details/transactionsofma1925mass 



1925 

Year Book 

of the 

Massachusetts Horticultural 

Society 




with the 

ANNUAL REPORT 

for 1924 






is 



Foreword 

The reception accorded the first issue of the Society's Year 
Book has proved sufficiently encouraging to warrant its be- 
coming an annual publication. The year of 1924 was marked 
by great increase in the activities of the Society and of interest 
in its work, and the number of new members added marks an 
epoch in the Society's history. These facts are reflected in the 
size of the present Year Book, edited by the Secretary, which 
has an increase of forty-five pages of matter over that of last 
year. In this issue will be found a greater number of illustra- 
tions, including portraits of the various medalists and views 
of some of the principal exhibits of 1924 at the Society's ex- 
hibitions in the Horticultural Hall. Details of the Society's 
activities are duly set forth and a valuable lecture on Peonies 
and a similar one on Dahlias is printed in full. There appears 
also a useful paper on the cultivation of Pears. It is earnestly 
hoped that the information here given will prove of perma- 
nent value and interest not only to members of the Society but 
to all concerned with the art and practice of Horticulture, 
which the Society was founded to advance. 

We have pleasure in presenting the second number of the 
Society's Year Book with which is combined the Annual 
Report for 1924. 

E. H. Wilson, Chairman, 
C. S. Sargent, 
Committee on Lectures and Publications. 

Boston, Mass. 
February 18, 1925. 



Table of Contents 



Foreword 

Officers for 1925 

Committees for 1925 ...... 

Medals and Certificates awarded in 1924 

Award of the George Robert White Medal of Honor 

Gold Medal Award to H. H. Richardson . 

Award to Thomas Roland . . 

Awards to Gardeners ...... 

Other Special Awards 

Notes on H. H. Richardson's Wild Garden . 
Special Prizes for Shrubs . . . . - . 
Growing Roses in the Home Garden — A Lecture by Eber 

Holmes ........ 

List of Desirable Rock plants for New England . 
The Late Thomas Allen ...... 

The Growing of Peonies — Lecture by Prof. A. P 

Saunders 

Diplomas of Membership ...... 

Charles W. Jenks, a member for sixty years . 
Members for fifty years or more .... 

Exhibitions and Lectures for 1925 .... 

Periodicals Currently Received .... 

Library Accessions ....... 

Contributions to the Society ..... 

Dahlias and Their Cultivation — A lecture by Marshall 

A. Howe 

The Cultivation of Pears — A paper by Dr. Walter H 

Kendall 

The Late Mary Crane Hewett ..... 
Inaugural Meeting in 1925 ..... 
Address of the President ..... 



Page 

3 
9 
10 
12 
21 
27 
29 
31 
32 
35 
39 

42 
51 
55 

57 
69 
71 
72 
73 
74 
78 
81 

83 

97 
104 
108 
108 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



Report of the Secretary 115 

Report of the Treasurer 119 

Report of the Committee on Plants and Flowers . . 123 
Report of the Committee on Fruit ..... 126 
Report of the Committee on Vegetables .... 128 
Report of the Committee on Children's Gardens . . 130 
Terms of Membership in the Massachusetts Horticul- 
tural Society , 132 

Necrology for 1924 133 

Honorary Members ....... 134 

Corresponding Members ....'.. 134 

Life Members ......... 137 

Annual Members . . 154 

Form of Bequest . . 170 



List of Illustrations 



Page 



First Membership Certificate of the Massachusetts 

Horticultural Society 
Edwin S. Webster . 
Joseph Pernet-Ducher 
Charles Sander 
T. D. Hatfield . 
Edward H. Clarkson 
Alexander Montgomery 
Thomas F. Donahue 
William Anderson . 
Grace Sturtevant . 
Mrs. Harriett R. Foote 
H. H. Richardson . 
Thomas Roland 
Robert Cameron 
Eugene N. Fischer . 
Rare Cypripediums being Grown by Th 

Nahant 
Wild Garden of H. H. Richardson 
Clintonia Umbellulata 
Amsonia Tabernaemontana 
Mrs. Louis Frothingham Rose Garden at 
Rock Garden of George E. Barnard 
Pool designed by the late Thomas Allen 
Exhibition of Peonies by Cherry Hill Nurseries . 
Charles W. Jenks . . . . 

Display of Dahlias which won the President's Cup 
Exhibit of President Albert C. Burrage at the Orchid 

Exhibition 
Vegetable Exhibit . 

7 



omas 



Roland at 



North Easton 



8 
11 
20 
25 
25 
26 
24 
26 
25 
24 
26 
24 
24 
25 
26 

• 28 
34 
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52 
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82 

105 
131 





"\ ... 



<L\k J ttassarhifadte IWtfntliuv 



First Membership Certificate of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society 



Massachusetts Horticultural Society 



OFFICERS FOR 1925 



President 

ALBERT C. BURRAGE, of Boston 

Vice-Presidents 

CHARLES S. SARGENT, of Brookline 
EDWIN S. WEBSTER, of Boston 

Treasurer 

JOHN S. AMES, of North Easton 

Secretary 
E. I. FARRINGTON, of Weymouth* 

Trustees 

JOHN S. AMES, of North Easton 

FRANCS H. APPLETON, of Boston 

A. C. BURRAGE, of Boston. 

ROBERT CAMERON, of Ipswich 

MISS MARIAN R. CASE, of Weston 

MRS. S. V. R. CROSBY, of Boston 

WILLIAM C. ENDICOTT, of Boston 

MRS. HOMER GAGE, of Worcester 

WALTER HUNNEWELL, of Wellesley 

NATHANIEL T. KIDDER, of Milton 

ARTHUR LYMAN, of Boston 

HENRY H. RICHARDSON, of Brookline. 

THOMAS ROLAND, of Nahant 

CHARLES S. SARGENT, of Brookline 

MRS. BAYARD THAYER, of South Lancaster 

GEORGE C. THURLOW, of West Newbury 

HENRY P. WALCOTT, of Cambridge 

EDWIN S. WEBSTER, of Boston 

ERNEST H. WILSON, of Jamaica Plain 

FRED A. WILSON, of Nahant 



* Communications to the Secretary, on the business of the Society, should be 
addressed to him at Horticultural Hall, Boston. 



COMMITTEES TOR 1925 



Finance Committee 

ALBERT C. BURRAGE, Chairman 

JOHN S. AMES EDWIN S. WEBSTER 

Executive Committee 

ALBERT C. BURRAGE, Chairman 

JOHN S. AMES MRS. BAYARD THAYER 

CHARLES S. SARGENT EDWIN S. WEBSTER 

Membership Committee 

MISS MARIAN ROBY CASE, Chairman 

ROBERT CAMERON GEORGE C. THURLOW 

Committee on Prizes 

ERNEST H. WILSON, Chairman 
THOMAS ROLAND HENRY H. RICHARDSON 

Committee on Exhibitions 

THOMAS ROLAND, Chairman 

ERNEST H. WILSON ROBERT CAMERON 

W. N. CRAIG JAMES MARLBOROUGH 

Committee on Library 

CHARLES S. SARGENT, Chairman 

NATHANIEL T. KIDDER JOHN S. AMES 

Committee on Lectures and Publications 
ERNEST H. WILSON, Chairman 
■ CHARLES S. SARGENT 

Committee on Buildings 

FRED A. WILSON, Chairman 

JOHN S. AMES 

Committee on Gardens 

WILLIAM C. ENDICOTT, Chairman 

WALTER HUNNEWELL MRS. F. B. CROWNINSHIELD 

Committee on George R. White Medal of Honor 

CHARLES S. SARGENT, Chairman 

MRS. S. V. R. CROSBY WILLIAM C. ENDICOTT 

Committee on Children's Gardens 

MISS MARIAN R. CASE, Chairman 

JAMES WHEELER MISS DELIA I. GRIFFIN 

Judges of Plants and Flowers 

WILLIAM ANDERSON, Chairman 

SAMUEL J. GODDARD DONALD McKENZIE 

AVILLIAM H. JUDD GEORGE F. STEWART 

Judges of Fruits 

ALBERT R. JENKS, Chairman 

JAMES METHVEN ANDREW K. ROGERS 

Judges of Vegetables 

WILLIAM N. CRAIG, Chairman 

WALTER H. COLBY EDWARD PARKER 

10 




Edwin S. Webster 
Newly-elected Vice President 



Medals and Certificates 

The following is a list of the Medals and Certificates 
awarded by the Massachusetts Horticultural Society in the 
year 1924 : 

George Robert White Medal of Honor 

J. Pernet-Ducher, Venissieux-les-Lyon, France, Rosariau, 
for eminent service in horticulture. 

President's Cup 

March 27. Thomas Roland, for a group of flowering and 

foliage plants. 
June 6. Thomas F. Donahue, for a display of Irises. 

" 27. T. S. Thurlow's Sons, for a display of Peonies. 
" 27. Iristhorpe, for a display of Sweet Peas. 

August 15. A. L. Stephen, for a display of Gladioli. 
September 13. Quannapowitt Dahlia Gardens, for a display 

of Dahlias. 
October 24. Patten & Co., for a display of Chrysanthemums. 

Gold Medal 

Mrs. Andrew Adie, for Brasso-laelio-cattleya 

Woodlands. 
Mrs. Homer Gage, for a spring bulb garden. 
J. T. Butterworth, for 12 varieties of Orchids. 
Eric Wetterlow, for a miniature estate. 
Thomas Roland, for a display of Orchids. 
Albert C. Burrage, for an exhibit illustrating the 

manner of growth of epiphytal Orchids. 
Edwin S. Webster, for the best group of flowering 
plants at the Chestnut Hill Garden Society's 
Spring Show, 1924. 
June 6. Mrs. Bayard Thayer, for a display of Lilium regale. 

12 



January 5. 


March 


27. 


t i 


27. 


i i 


27. 


1 1 


27. 


May 8 


. A 



MEDALS AND CERTIFICATES 13 

June 6. J. T. Butterworth, for a group of Miltonia vexil- 
laria, skillfully grown. 
6. J. T. Butterworth, for a specimen plant of Cattleya 

Mossiae Mrs. J. T. Butterworth. 
9. William Anderson, for eminent service in horticul- 
ture. 
9. Charles Sander, for eminent service in horticulture. 
August 15. A. L. Stephen, for a collection of Gladioli ar- 
ranged for effect. 

October 24. Albert C. Burrage, for a display of Orchids. 

24. Julius Heurlin, Blue Hill Nurseries, for a dis- 
play of evergreens. 

November 15. Henry Hyslop Richardson, for a wild flower 

garden. 

December 3. Robert Cameron, for eminent service in horti- 
culture. 
3. T. D. Hatfield, for eminent service in horticul- 
ture. 
15. Alexander Montgomery, for his skill and suc- 
cess in producing new Roses. 
15. Miss Grace Sturtevant, for her skill in origi- 
nating new Iris varieties. 

29. Thomas Roland for eminent service in horti- 
culture. 

Silver Gilt Medal 

September 13. Joseph Breck & Sons, for a collection of vege- 
tables artistically arranged. 
October 24. Hillcrest Gardens, for a display of fruits and 
vegetables. 

Silver Medal 

January 5. Frank Glancey, for the culture of Brasso-laelio- 

cattleya Woodlands. 
14. Peter Arnott, for the culture of Cymbidium 

Schlegelii variety. 
14. George F. Stewart, for the culture of Zygopeta- 

lum Mackayi. 



14 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 



March 


27. 


c i 


27. 


t i 


27. 


1 1 


27. 


i c 


27. 


C i 


27. 


C I . 


27. 


i i 


27. 


c c 


27. 


i c 


27. 



27. 



27. 



June 6. 



6. 
6. 

6. 

27. 
27. 



W. W. Edgar Co., for a group of Eoses. 

J. T. Butterworth, for six varieties of Orchids. 

W. W. Edgar Co., for a spring bulb garden. 

Mrs. Homer Gage, for a rock garden. 

J. T. Butterworth, for a specimen Orchid. 

Boston Park Department, for a group of foliage 

plants. 
Houghton-Gorney, for an artistic table display. 
P. R. Pierson, for Rose Mrs. Calvin Coolidge. 
R. & J. Farquhar Co., for a miniature estate. 
Wollrath & Sons, for a group of flowering and 

foliage plants. 
Harold Ryan, Inc., for a group of flowering and 

foliage plants. 
William Patterson, for a bulb garden. 
George N. Smith, for a comprehensive display of 

Irises 
Hillcrest Gardens, for a collection of cut flowers of 

flowering shrubs. 
Harry Seaton Rancl, for 36 varieties of scented 

Pelargoniums. 
Garden Club of America, for a group of model 

homes and gardens. 
Thomas F. Donahue, for Iris Magnifica. 
T. C. Thurlow's Sons Co., for a display of Peonies. 
R. S. Bradley, for a collection of hardy Roses. 



August 15. 



collection of Gladioli 



30. 



Clark W. Brown, for a 

arranged for effect. 
Mary Hemenway School, for a comprehensive 
and educational display. 
" 30. Edna Roeder, a collection of wild flowers, leaves 
and grasses, correctly named. 
September 13. Quannapowitt Dahlia Gardens, for a display 

of Dahlias arranged for effect. 
Symphony Flower Shop, for a basket of single 

Dahlias. 
H. R. Comley, for a basket of Cactus Dahlias. 
Mrs. B. Hammond Tracy, for a basket of 

Dahlias other than single or cactus. 
Albert C. Burrage, for a group of Yandas in 
variety. 



13. 

13. 

13. 

13. 



MEDALS AND CERTIFICATES 15 

September 13. Hillcrest Gardens, for a display of fruits with 

autumn foliage. 
October 24. Wyman's Framingham Nurseries, for a collec- 
tion of hardy evergreens. 
24. Edwin S. Webster, for a specimen Begonia. 
24. J. T. Butterworth, for a display of Cypripe- 

diums. 
24. Thomas Roland, for a display of Cypripediums. 
24. for a display of Nerines. 

24. Parker Bros., for a collection of New England 
grown apples, arranged for effect. 
November 15. Mrs. Harriett R. Foote, for her work in raising 

the standard of Rose growing in New 
England. 
15. Eugene N. Fischer, for his skill in producing 

new Gladioli. 
15. William Sim, for a display of Carnations. 

Bronze Medal 

March 27. Osgood Bros., for an oval bed of Hyacinths. 

27. Jos. Breck & Sons, for a display of Potted Plants. 
27. Arthur Lyman, for a collection of Camellias. 
27. Mrs. Bayard Thayer, for Rosa laevigata (Chero- 
kee Rose). 
June 6. Mrs. W. H. Cary, for a model home and garden. 
" 27. Anton Bulk, for a display of Peonies. 
' ' 27. Hillcrest Gardens, for a display of hardy herbaceous 
perennials. 
August 15. Mrs. Margaret Breard Hawkes, for a display of 

Gladioli arranged for effect. 
September 13. J. K. Alexander, for a display of Dahlias ar- 
ranged for effect. 
13. Mrs. B. Hammond Tracy, for a basket of sin- 
gle Dahlias. 
13. H. R. Comley, for a basket of Dahlias, other 

than single or cactus. 
13. Jelle Roos, for a display of Gladioli and Mig- 
non Dahlias. 
October 24. Little Tree Farms, for a collection of hardy 
evergreens. 
24. R. S. Bradley, for a specimen Begonia. 



1 1 

i c 



16 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

October 24. A. S. Caplan, for a table decoration. 

24. Harold A. Ryan, Inc., for a bridal bouquet. 

Bronze Medals for Children's Gardens 

{Given by Miss Marian Roby Case) 

John Losi, Dorchester. 

Miriam Sullivan, Deerfield St. Garden. 

Mary A. and Edmund Vargos, North End Garden. 

Philip Marcanda, North End Garden. 

Robert Blair, Dorchester. 

Edward Carson, Dorchester. 

Prank Kriegman, Dorchester. 

Freda Gilman, Dorchester. 

Gaetano Dell Ofano, North End Garden. 

Mary E. Phillips, Deerfield St. Garden. 

Webster Bros., Frank, Edward and George, Deerfield St. 

Garden. 
Paul Maged, Dorchester. 
Elsie Akermark, Mattapan. 
Ralph Milch, Mattapan. 
David Sachs, East Boston. 
Manuel Furtado, Tewksbury. 
Homer E. Blenus, Roxbury. 
Irving Leslie, Mattapan. 
William J. Norton, Forest Hills. 
Fred Taylor, Groton. 
Carl Pearson, Concord. 
Robert Wright, Lexington. 
Richard Herrick, Stow. 
Floyd Darby, Lowell. 
Domenique Lentine, Framingham. 
Alexander Chapman, Lincoln. 
Edmund Gleason, So. Sudbury. 
Henry Dawcett, Tewksbury. 
Charles Smith, Waltham. 
Ganzio Amico, Winchester. 
Kenneth Larrabee, Reading. 
Lester Brown, Wilmington. 
Emery Brown, Stoneham. 
William Roust, Cochituate. 



MEDALS AND CERTIFICATES 17 

Lars Neilson, Wilmington. 
Ernest Walla, Framingham. 
Alfred Windhol, Concord. 
Howard Winters, Framingham. 

First Class Certificate of Merit 

March 27. Carnation Aggie Ross, exhibited by C. B. John- 
son. 
June 6. Lilium regale, exhibited by William Anderson. 

6. Cattleya Mossiae Mrs. J. T. Butterworth, exhibited 
by J. T. Butterworth. 
August 15. Grapes Muscat of Alexandria, exhibited by 

Archibald Wagstaff . 
September 13. Vanda coerulea Orchidvale variety, exhibited 

by Albert C. Burrage. 
October 24. Carnation Betty Lou, exhibited by Bauer, 
Steinkamp & Co. 
24. Brass-cattleya Maroneris Canary, exhibited by 

Edwin S. Webster. 
24. Carnation Spectrum, exhibited by S. J. God- 
dard. 

Award of Merit 

June 6. Rhododendron Caroline, exhibited by Walter Hun- 
newell. 
il 27. Dianthus plumarius Annie Laurie, exhibited by 
Robert Laurie. 
August 15. Gladiolus seedling Gladdie Boy, exhibited by 

Bonney Gardens. 
September 13. Gladiolus Lustre, exhibited by W. N. Craig. 
October 24. Rose Paul Revere, exhibited by Thomas Roland. 
24. Rhododendron Taylori, exhibited by Mrs. J. C. 
D. Bradley. 

Honorable Mention 

March 27. Pierce Bros., for Vase of Roses. 

27. Lowthorpe School, for display of alpine plants. 
27. Thomas Roland, for display of Hydrangeas. 
27. C. B. Johnson, for three varieties of Irises. 
27. " " for Carnations Peach and Our 

Mary. 



i i 
i t 
i c 



18 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

June 6. Walter Hunnewell, for exhibit of Rhododendrons. 
August 15. H. E. Meader, for Primulinus Hybrid Gladiolus 
Eed Cloud. 
15. Thomas Cogger, for Gladiolus seedling Capt. 

Boynton. 
15. Clark W. Brown, for Gladiolus seedling 1879c. 
15. H. E. Meader for Gladiolus Albania. 
15. J. A. Kemp for Gladiolus Albania. 
September 13. James Donald, for seedling potato (Spauld- 

ing Eose x Nebraska). 
13. Percy C. Reed, for New Departure squash. 
13. James Bache, for tomato Fillstone Perfection. 
13. Mrs. Lester Leland, for salad tomato Drino. 
13. James Bache, for yellow corn Golden Staff. 
October 24. Mrs. E. C. Benton, for French Choux. 

Cultural Certificate 

March 27. Charles H. Rice, for Carnations and Irises. 

Vote of Thanks 

March 27. C. B. Johnson, for Spanish Iris. 

27. " " " for Wall Flowers. 
June 27. W. E. Clark, for cut flowers. 

27. Louis Vasseur, for a model garden. 
' ' 27. A. H. Fewkes, for Peonies. 
" 27. T. C. Thurlow's Sons Co., for Peonies. 
" 27. H. F. Chase, for Irises. 
September 13. Mrs. B. Hammond Tracj^, for Gladioli and 

Dahlias. 
13. Mrs. S. V. R. Crosby, for seedling Dahlias. 
October 24. Mrs. Albert C. Burrage, for cut blooms of Tuber- 
ous Rooted Begonias. 
24. John S. Doig, for Bird of Paradise flowers. 
24. B. R. Sands, for exhibit of Honey. 

Garden Certificates 

November 15. Thomas F. Donahue, for his unusual skill in 

the growing of Irises and Peonies. 
15. Edward H. Clarkson, for his work in collecting 
and classifying native Ferns. 



MEDALS AND CERTIFICATES 19 

W. B. H. Dowse Trophy Cup 

Hillcrest Gardens, Weston, Mass. 

Silver Medal (Must be won three years) 

June 27. Hillcrest Gardens, for the best new strawberry of 
merit. (First year) 

American Peony Society's Silver Medal 

June 27. T. C. Tlmrlow's Sons, for the best collection of 
Peonies, 100 named varieties, one flower of 
each. 




< 

w 



IIB^ 




Courtesy of the American Rose Society 

Joseph Pernet-Ducher 
Awarded the George Robert White Medal of Honor 



George Robert White Medal of Honor 

Announcement was made at the close of 1924 that the 
award of the George Robert White Medal of Honor for that 
year had been made to M. J. Pernet-Ducher, of Venissieux- 
les-Lyons, (Rhone) France. This award is made once a year, 
to the man, woman or firm in any part of the world whose 
work for the promotion of horticulture has been conspicu- 
ously important. The announcement of the award to M. 
Pernet-Ducher has been received with great satisfaction 
everywhere, for the fact is generally admitted that this great 
French hybridizer has produced more valuable new Roses 
than any man who ever lived. He is an old man, and a very 
modest man, but his little nursery, which is located in the 
suburbs of Lyons, about six miles from the center of the city, 
has long been the Mecca of Rose enthusiasts. 

M. Pernet-Ducher suffered heavily in the world war. Both 
of his sons, who were his assistants, were killed. Claude 
lost his life in the battle of Arras and George not far from 
Verdun. In spite of his affliction, this great Rosarian has 
continued at his work, and has just produced a new Rose, 
Angele Pernet, which has been very well received in France 
and England, being awarded the Bagatelle gold medal in 
June, 1924. 

M. Pernet-Ducher was a very intimate friend of the late 
Admiral Ward, who visited him on several occasions. Indeed, 
the friendship between these two men was something quite 
out of the ordinary. 

M. Pernet-Ducher was the first Rosarian to cross the 
hybrid tea and hybrid Roses with the Austrian copper and 
Persian yellow Rose. The result of this cross gave the world 
the Pernettiana type of Roses. 



Roses Originated by M. Pernet-Ducher 

Angele Pernet 1924 

Souv. de Claudius Pernet 1921 

21 



22. MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

Souv. de Georges Pernet 1922 

Rev. Williamson 1922 

Antoine Revoire 1896 

Etoile de Feu 1922 

Mdme. Meha Sabatier 1917 

Colette Martinet 1915 

Melanie Soupert 1906 

Marquis de Sinety 1905 

Senorita Carmen Sert 1916 

Toison d'Or 1922 

Arthur R. Goodwin 1917 

J. C. N. Forestier 1919 

Raymond 1917 

Souv. de George Beckwith j 1920 

Viscountess Enfield 1910 

Willowmere 1914 

Mdme. Ravery 1900 

Mrs. Aaron Ward 1907 

Mrs. A. R. Waddell 1903 

Prince de Bulgarie 1902 

Serge Basset 1918 

Souv. de Mdme. Boullet 1922 

Sunburst 1912 

Beaute de Lyon 1910 

Constance 1915 

Louise Catherine Breslau 1912 

Lyon Rose 1907 

Mdme. Edouard Herriot 1913 

Mrs. Beckwith 1923 

Mrs. Farmer 1919 

President Bouche 1916 

Rayon d'Or 1910 

Soleil d'Or 1920 

Pres. Cherioux 1923 

Aspirant Marcel Rouyer 1920 

Benedicte Sequin 1919 

Capt. Georges Dessirier 1920 

Caroline Testout 1890 

Chateau de Clos Vougeot 1908 

Cissie Easlea 1913 

Elegante 1918 



GEORGE ROBERT WHITE MEDAL OF HONOR 23 

Francklin 1918 

Monsieur Joseph Hill 1904 

Laurent Carle 1910 

Mdme. Cariste Martel 1917 

Le Progres 1904 

Mdme. Abel Chatney 1895 

Edmond Gillet 1922 

Beaute Inconstante 1892 

Admiral Ward 1915 

Andre Gamon 1909 

Etoile de France 1904 

Mdme. Charles de Luzze 1903 

Charles Lutaud 1912 

" Hector Leuilliot 1903 

Jenny Gillemot 1905 

Maurice de Luze 1907 

' ' Lucian Baltet 1911 

Pernet-Ducher 1891 

' ' Phillipe Rivoire 1905 

Theodore Delacourt 1913 

Mdlle. Simone Beaumer 1906 

Marquise Litta de Breteuil . . 1893 

Renee Wilmart-Urban 1908 

Senateur Mascuraud 1909 

Souv. de Gustave Prat 1910 

" de Mme. Eugene Verdier 1894 

' ' Du President Carnot 1894 

Totote Gelos 1915 

Eugene Boullet 1910 

Mdme. Edmond Rostand 1912 




Thomas Roland 



H. H. Richardson 




Alexander Montgomery Miss Grace Sturtevant 

Recipients of Gold Medals in 1924 





Charles Sander 



Robert Cameron 





T. D. Hatfield William Anderson 

Gardeners Awarded Gold Medals in 1924 




Eugene Fischer Mrs. Harriett R. Foote 

Awarded Silver Medals in 1924 




Edward H. Clarkson Thomas F. Donahue 

Awarded Certificates in 1924 



Gold Medal Award to H. H. Richardson 

July 21, 1924. 

To the Trustees of the 
Massachusetts Horticultural Society: 

The Committee on Gardens appointed by your President 
has visited the Henry Hyslop Richardson place in Brookline 
and recommend that a gold medal be given to Mr. Richardson. 
Henry Holson Richardson, the famous architect, came to 
the Brookline house in the spring of 1874, having leased the 
property on a long term lease from Edward W. Hooper, 
Esquire, the then owner. In the spring of 1891 Mrs. Richard- 
son purchased the property from Mr. Hooper, and Mr. 
Richardson acquired the property from his mother's estate 
in February, 1915. 

Until 1912 the rear part of the property was a neglected 
and uncared for wooded ravine, a tangle of fallen trees, briars, 
rank herbs and debris. In the autumn of that year Mr. 
Richardson started to reclaim this ravine, cutting out trees 
and removing the accumulated debris. In 1913 he finished 
cleaning up the bank, made paths and did some planting, but 
it was not until the spring of 1914 that he started to carry 
out his plan of developing a wild garden of strictly Ameri- 
can plants. He first removed, excepting the forest trees and a 
few shrubs, all the vegetation down to the bare soil and 
planted 43,000 ferns including all the native Eastern species, 
to prevent the bank from washing. Prom then on as he 
planted he removed ferns to make room for the shrubs and 
herbaceous plants. This work has all been done under Mr. 
Richardson's personal supervision, and a large part of it by 
Mr. Richardson himself. 

William C. Endicott 

Mrs. C. Frederick Crowninshield 

Christian Van der Voet 

Committee on Gardens. 

27 



Award to Thomas Roland 

Boston, Mass., Dec. 16, 1924 

To the Trustees of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society : — 

The Committee on Gardens appointed by your President 
has visited the greenhouses of Thomas Roland at Nahant and 
recommend that a gold medal be given to Mr. Roland. 

In his greenhouses at Nahant Mr. Roland has a very remark- 
able collection of plants all in perfect condition. His Cypripe- 
diums are very beautiful and are arranged with great taste. 
Some eight greenhouses are devoted entirely to Cyclamen 
(twelve thousand plants or more) now in full bloom. Two or 
three greenhouses are devoted to Begonias which are equally 
beautiful. Though the extensive collection of many varieties 
of Acacias were not yet in bloom, one could see how vigorous 
the plants were and how fine the flowers will be when fully 
developed. 

The Committee were unanimous in their opinion that Mr. 
Roland is one of the best florists in the United States. It was 
with regret that two members of the Committee were unable 
to see the Souvenir de Claudius Pernet Roses which are grown 
in his extensive greenhouses at Revere. Mr. Roland is ab- 
sorbed in his work. In visiting the greenhouses under his 
guidance one felt the personal touch which is so necessary to 
success. 

William C. Endicott 
Mrs. P. B. Crowninshield 
Christian Van der Voet 

Committee on Gardens. 

An Appreciation of Thomas Roland's Work 

When I was a boy Mr. Roland was a young man. At that 
age a few years makes that difference. He went about 
modestly and unobtrusively so that no one knew or could 
guess what the future had stored up for him. Then one 
time came the news that he had bought a place on Nahant. 

29 



30 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

At that time it contained a little cluster of small and not 
very modern greenhouses, but it was all he could swing finan- 
cially. I do not remember just when this was but he has 
done, since then, a piece of work of which any might be 
proud. He has built his business, built his reputation and 
built himself. All three achievements stand high today in 
the admiration of all who know them. Mr. Roland's business 
has grown, at first slowly, then rapidly, but always — it would 
seem — surely and firmly, until it is large and successful. His 
reputation as a man of sound judgment and great ability is 
widespread — nation wide, in fact, among horticultural people 
of all kinds. Of himself anyone who knows him will speak also 
in superlatives. His mind can collate and analyse an abun- 
dance of information upon a subject, and he can express an 
opinion clearly, concisely and emphatically. At times he has 
won over majorities to his side in committee and directorate, 
and I doubt if the converts have ever regretted. He is com- 
panionable, friendly and sympathetic, and still retains modesty 
as a noticeable characteristic. He is a man of many friends 
and much achievement. 

It is always a pleasure to visit his establishments. They 
are as clean as a private conservatory. The products are 
of high quality. There are- always specialties in which he 
has spent time and money — out of an interest not compen- 
sated by any money return. His collection of Acacias is 
prominent and is sought for every flower show of signifi- 
cance. Just at this writing he has in bloom a varied group 
of Cypripedium orchids which has been called by experts 
the finest ever seen together. 

The cause of all this, in one phrase, I would say to be an 
unusual ability to see possibilities in plants and the skill 
to make the utmost of them. I think I should add that Mr. 
Roland and I are strong personal friends ; but I am fortun- 
ately able to associate more or less with horticultural people 
of diverse plant interests, and I feel that I do not at all over- 
state what very many men would say of him. 

FRED A. WILSON. 
Nahant, Mass. 
December 22, 1924. 



Awards to Gardeners 

The Trustees awarded the following medals to gardeners 
in 1924: 

A gold medal to William Anderson, who is in charge of the 
estate of Mrs. Bayard Thayer at Lancaster. Mr. Anderson 
has been remarkably successful in the growing of rare ever- 
greens, in the propagation of the Regal and other Lilies, in the 
propagation and cultivation of Heather (Calluna vulgaris), 
and in the management of a large and unusual estate. 

A gold medal to Charles Sander. Mr. Sander has been for 
many years the superintendent of Holm Lea, the estate of 
Prof. C. S. Sargent, in Brookline. His work in developing the 
Kurume and other Azaleas, Nerines, Clivias, and other rare 
plants has attracted wide attention. 

A gold medal to Robert Cameron for eminent service in 
promoting horticulture. Mr. Cameron is superintendent of 
the estate of R. T. Crane, Jr., at Ipswich. He was long 
in charge of the Harvard Botanical Garden in Cambridge, 
has been president of the National Gardeners' Association and 
is known far and wide for his horticultural skill and knowl- 
edge. 

A gold medal to T. D. Hatfield for eminent service in pro- 
moting horticulture. Mr. Hatfield is superintendent of the 
estate owned by Walter Hunnewell in Wellesley and contain- 
ing the only topiary garden in New England. The Hunnewell 
estate is planted with rare and valuable trees and shrubs, 
being especially notable for its collection of Conifers, Rhodo- 
dendrons and Azaleas. Mr. Hatfield is considered an authorit} 7- 
on the propagation and cultivation of such plants. He has 
written many articles for papers and magazines and has served 
as chairman of the judges at the exhibitions of the Massachu- 
setts Horticultural Society. 



31 



Other Special Awards 



In addition to the Gold Medal awards to H. H. Richardson 
and Thomas Roland and those to gardeners, several special 
awards were made by the Trustees on recommendation of the 
Committee on Gardens in the year 1924. They were as fol- 
lows, with the comments of the Committee : 

We recommend that Gold Medals be given the following 
people : 

Miss Grace Sturtevant, Wellesley Farms, Mass. 

Miss Sturtevant is one of the leading Iris hybridizers in 
America and the foremost in New England. The accom- 
panying list indicates fifty-six varieties introduced by 
her. Many of these varieties, like After-Glow, Avalon, 
Mme. Cheri, B. Y. Morrison, Shekinah, Milky-Way, 
and Valkyre, have taken a very high place among Irises. 
Miss Sturtevant 's work has been of a very scientific 
character and she has carefully avoided putting out 
inferior varieties. 
Mr. Alexander Montgomery, Hadley, Mass. 

Mr. Montgomery is undoubtedly the best commercial 
Rose grower in Massachusetts, and has originated more 
new kinds of Roses than other person in New England. 
Such Roses as Hadley and Priscilla have become well 
known throughout the United States and even across 
the water. Many thousands of them are grown in 
greenhouses all over the country and are sold in the 
retail stores every day. Mr. Montgomery stands at the 
very head of commercial Horticulturists in this state 
and is an old time member of the Massachusetts Horti- 
cultural Society, having often exhibited here. 
We recommend that Silver Medals be given the following : 
Mrs. Harriett R. Foote, Marblehead, Mass. 

Mrs. Foote has done more than any other person in New 
England to introduce commercially new Roses, to im- 
prove the cultivation of Roses and the character of Rose 
gardens. Her influence has become nation wide, and 

32 



OTHER SPECIAL AWARDS 33 

for many years she has been considered the foremost 
grower of outdoor Roses in New England. Her place 
at Marblehead has been visited by many members of the 
Society and many experts, all of whom are united in 
this opinion. 

Mr. Eugene N. Fischer, Jamaica Plain, Mass. 

Mr. Fischer is easily the most notable hybridizer of 
Gladioli in New England and is considered the most 
scientific grower in the country. Among the varieties 
produced by him which stand very high are Mrs. Fred- 
erick C. Peters, Dr. R. T. Jackson, Robin Hood, Henry 
C. Goehl, Priscilla, John Alden, Ornatus, Harmonia, 
Fortuna and Sunnymede. Mr. Fischer is also famed 
for his pictures numbering about one hundred and fifty, 
which give a history of the development of the 
Gladiolus from the time the first original species of 
Europe and Africa were planted in gardens. 
We recommend that Certificates be given the following : 

Mr. Thomas Donahue, Newton Lower Falls, Mass. 

Mr. Donahue, whose place has been visited by the Gar- 
den Committee, has won a wide reputation as an Iris 
and Peony grower. Any award to him should go par- 
ticularly for the elegance of culture shown and the high 
quality of flowers grown, particularly among the Irises. 
Few men have done so much to introduce and popu- 
larize new varieties, and his work in exhibiting and de- 
veloping Tree Peonies has been especially noteworthy. 

Mr. Edward H. Clarkson, Newbury port, Mass. 

Mr. Clarkson has made a special study of Ferns for 
many years and ranks among the highest amateur hor- 
ticulturists in New England. In his garden one finds 
great numbers of rare Ferns which have been person- 
ally collected and acclimatized. This is not in any re- 
pect a show place, but represents an unusual amount of 
very intelligent and painstaking work in classifying 
and cultivating native Ferns. 



Notes on Mr. Richardson's Wild Garden 

The area of Mr. Richardson's garden is about one and one- 
half acres : the actual ground area is considerably more, due to 
a drop of 80 feet from upper ground to the brook level. Out 
croppings of a ledge on the side of the wooded ravine gives 
various soil conditions. 

The collection of plants is divided into three approximately 
equal sections. The western one is given over to plants in- 
digenous to the southeastern States, the North Carolina 
Appalachian Mountain region in particular. The middle sec- 
tion is devoted to plants of the western States (mostly her- 
baceous) and the asterly section to plants of the north eastern 
States. 

The collection includes the most desirable small trees, 
shrubs, vines and herbaceous plants of the North American 
flora, on account of their ornamental value, their interest or 
their rarity, that are hardy in this section but there are more 
species of the Heath and Lily families than of any others. 
All are planted under as nearly natural conditions and sur- 
roundings as possible. Eighty-five families are represented, 
including over 700 species and varieties. 

Owing to congenial soil conditions and exposure the follow- 
ing native woody plants are established in the Richardson 
garden^which are not included in general collections : 

Buckleya distichophylla. Parasitic on roots of Hemlock : 
raised from seed and know r n to grow only in one or 
two ravines of the French Broad River near Asheville, 
North Carolina. 

Halesia diptera. (Southern Silver-bell.) 

Stewartia pentagyna grandiflora. Purple-stamened variety 
of the so-called American Camellia. 

Kalmia cuneata. "Wicky ;" the only deciduous Kalmia. 

Menziesia pilosa. (False Heather.) An ericaceous shrub 
found at high altitudes in the southern Appalachian 
Mountains, the foliage resembles a cross between an 
Azalea and a Blueberry. 

35 



36 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 



Vitis rotundifolia. (Muscadine Grape: Southern Fox 

grape.) 
Lonicera flava. (Yellow Honeysuckle Vine.) 
Clematis coccinea. Scarlet Clematis from Texas. 

Neviussia alabamensis. Found only on the banks of the 
Black Warrior river at Tuscaloosa, Ala. 

Vaccinium hirsutum. (Hairy Huckleberry.) 

Hydrangea quercifolia. (Oak-leaf Hydrangea.) 

Magnolia cordata. (Yellow flowered Magnolia.) This 
plant was discovered by Michaux at the end of 18th 
century near the Savannah river, Georgia. All efforts 




> ■:■■ ■ , . •* 




Clint onia Umbellulata 



to rediscover the plant failed until about 1914, when 
Berckmans Bros, found it in the woods near Atlanta, 
Georgia. 
Gaylussacia ursina. (Bearberry) and Leucothoe recurva 
(Mt. Leucothoe) both from the North Carolina Moun- 
tains. 
Gaylussacia brachycera. (Box-leafed Huckleberry.) 
Halesia Carolina monticola. The tree form of "Silver 
Bell." 



NOTES ON MR. RICHARDSON'S WILD GARDEN 



37 



Pachystima Canbyi from Virginia. Very few stations for 

this plant are known. 
There are several new color forms of Azaleas found recently 
in the North Carolina mountains and some unusual forms of 
Kalmia latifolia. All the hardy American Azaleas and Rhodo- 
dendrons and the seven hardy American Magnolias are in the 
collection. 

The most interesting vines are : 

Anisostichus capreolatus syn. Bignonia crucigera. (Cross 
vine), which bloomed for the first time North of Vir- 
ginia in this ravine. 




Amsonia Tabernaemontana 



Lonicera flava. (The Southern Yellow Honeysuckle.) 

Six native wild Clematis vines, including Clematis coc- 
cinea, (the Scarlet Clematis of Texas) : 

C. Simsii. A beautiful late-flowering purple Clematis from 

the south western States. 
C. verticillaris. (Purple Virgins Bower), which grows 

from Virginia as far north as Hudson's Bay. 
Mikania scandens. (Climbing Hempseed.) An attractive 

twining vine found in swamps and along streams from 



38 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

Maine to Florida. "The only member of the Com- 
posite family climbing on bushes" (Walton). 

Of the herbaceous plants the most interesting are : 

Shortia galacifolia. ("Little Colt's Foot.") First discov- 
ered by Michaux in the North Carolina mountains then 
lost to science and rediscovered 100 years later by a 
scientific party headed by Professors Sargent and Asa 
Gray. 

Iris fulva or cuprea. A brownish red Iris commonly found 
in wet ground in Louisiana. 

Panax quinquifolium. (Ginseng.) The panacea of all 
Chinese ailments. 

Carex Frazeri. A rare sedge of the Appalachian Mountains. 

Waldsteinia frageroides. (Barren Strawberry.) 

Asarum caudatum. An interesting wild ginger from the 
Pacific coast. 

Linnaea borealis. (Twin flower.) 

There are sixteen or seventeen species of wild native Tril- 
liums and nine wild native eastern Irises as well as several 
western species. 

There are also six wild eastern Lilies and several western 
kinds, and many of the native Orchids. 

Nine or ten species of Erythronium, all but two from the 
Pacific coast region, and three western Fritillarias are found 
in the collection. 

The Ferns number forty-one different kinds including the 
following rare species : 

Climbing Fern (Lygodium palmatum). 

Walking Fern (Camptosorus rhizophyllus). 

Hart's-tongue Fern (Scolopendrium vulgar e). 

Polystichum Andersonii. A very rare fern from the West. 



Special Prizes Offered 

Prizes have been offered by Mrs. Bayard Thayer, a trustee 
of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society, as follows : 

1st 2d 
For the best group of Azalea viscosa ( Clammy 

Azalea), not less than 12 plants ... $30 $20 
For the best group of Ilex verticillata (Black 

Alder), not less than 12 plants .... 30 20 
For the best group of Hamamelis virginiana 

( "Wit chhazel), not less than 12 plants . . 30 20 
For the best group of Magnolia virginiana 

(glauca) (Sweet Bay), not less than 12 plants 30 20 
For the best group of Kalmia latifolia (Moun- 
tain Laurel), not less than 12 plants . . 30 20 
These prizes will be awarded in 1927 for groups grown from 
nursery stock and established in Massachusetts during the 
year 1925. Entries are to be made to the Secretary of the 
Massachusetts Horticultural Society on or before March 1, 
1927. Mrs. Thayer also offers similar prizes for groups estab- 
lished in 1926 and 1927 respectively. 

Shrubbery Beds or Borders 

Mrs. Thayer also offers a prize of fifty dollars for the best 
permanently planted shrubbery bed or border consisting of 
native New England shrubs, not less than fifty plants, at 
least 12 of each kind all to be nursery grown. In making this 
award the judges will be influenced by the taste and good 
judgment shown in grouping the shrubs. Entries should be 
made to the Secretary, Horticulture Hall, Boston, on or before 
September 1, 1925. 

Prizes for Lobelia Cardinalis 

Mr. Albert C. Burrage, president of the Massachusetts Hor- 
ticultural Society, offers a $100 silver cup to be awarded in 
1926 for the best colony of Lobelia cardinalis (Cardinal 

39 



40 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

Flower) having not less than one hundred plants, established 
in the year 1925. Entries must be made to the Secretary of 
the Massachusetts Horticultural Society on or before August 
1, 1926. 

The President of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society 
has appointed Mrs. Bayard Thayer and Mr. H. H. Richardson 
to act as the judges in the above competitions. 



Prize for Native Trees Offered 

The Massachusetts Horticultural Society is offering a gold 
medal to be awarded at the end of the year 1926 to the owner 
of the finest native tree, a photograph of which is submitted 
for competition, the tree to have a trunk diameter of at least 
two feet, four feet above the ground, with size, general appear- 
ance and evidence of care being taken into consideration in 
making the award. This competition is open to all residents 
of Massachusetts ; owners of unusual specimens of American 
trees are invited to correspond with the secretary if further 
information is desired. 




o 



&3 






Oj 



** 
o 
%. 






Growing Roses in the Home Garden* 

The best location for a Rose garden is one facing south 
east, away from large trees and getting sunshine at least half 
the day. The early morning sun is important from the fact 
that Roses in the open make most of their growth between 
dawn and eight o'clock in the morning. 

There should be no cutting winds or draughts, the ground 
should be well drained, but not devoid of moisture. If your 
ground contains stagnant moisture, dig out to a depth of 18 
inches and break up the ground below. Then if you care to 
go to the expense you can tile it, or fill in with loose rubble 
such as is obtained from old buildings, or with stones, loose 
gravel or similar material. Then you may lay sods with the 
grass side down and fill in with good loam well mixed with 
manure until the soil is a little above the former level. Some 
old writers advocate filling to eight or 12 inches above the old 
level but this is seldom necessary and where prolonged 
droughts occur it might be injurious. 

Roses are gross feeders and require rich soil. The plant will 
indicate the condition of the soil. If the growth is luxuriant 
and the flowers abundant you can be assured that the soil is 
right, but if the foliage is weak and yellow with few and poor 
flowers you may know that your soil needs fertilizer. You can- 
not have good flowers without good foliage, they are insep- 
arable. There is nothing better than good barnyard manure 
well mixed with the soil but when this is fresh and green it 
should not come in contact with the roots. For a top dressing, 
bone meal, acid phosphate, soot, lime, tankage, or other fer- 
tilizers may be used and lightly raked in to the topsoil. 

Hybrid perpetuals do best in a stiff loam, one with an ad- 
mixture of clay is beneficial. Such a soil keeps cool and re- 
tains moisture, which is an advantage, for although Roses 
object to standing water, they do like to be cool at the roots 
during the hot weather. Good drainage is important because 
in the early spring if the Roses are under water there is more 

* A lecture by Eber Holmes at the Rose and Sweet Pea Exhibit June 27, 1924. 

42 



GROWING ROSES IN THE HOME GARDEN 43 

danger of their winterkilling. A spot fully exposed to the 
sun and sheltered from strong winds is best. 

Hybrid Teas do best in a lighter loam. It is worth while 
to dig deeply and if the subsoil is of fair quality to mix it 
with the top soil, with plenty of manure. If it is very sandy 
and gravelly remove it and replace with good soil. The bottom 
must be made right at the start; the top may be enriched at 
any time. For a few individual plants dig holes and fill these 
with good prepared loam before planting. Last winter I saw 
Ophelia Roses growing in a greenhouse near Philadelphia in 
clean sand. These were fed from the top as nothing was mixed 
with the sand and were superior to other plants in the same 
house that were planted in prepared soil in the regular way. 

For the large shrub Roses and climbers, a hole at least two 
feet square should be made. For a number of plants the beds 
may be of any size and shape according to the location, and 
the effect desired, but for convenience in tending the plants, 
and cutting the blooms, the beds should not be more than four 
or fiYe feet wide. Give the Roses plenty of room, especially 
the climbers. 

The Teas and Hybrid Teas may be planted 18 inches apart 
and 10 inches from the outside of the bed, while the stronger 
growing hybrid perpetuals should be 24 inches apart. It is 
well not to allow fresh manure to come in contact with the 
roots. 

Roses may be planted either in the fall as soon as the wood 
is ripe and the leaves are falling but while the ground is still 
warm, or in the spring, as early as the ground is in shape to 
work, and up to May depending on the season. The earlier 
the work is done the better, although we have planted in June 
in a cold wet season with very good results. 

Planted under proper conditions in the fall the plants will 
make some new roots which will assist somewhat in supplying 
moisture to offset the evaporation that is constantly taking 
place, and these roots will get to work early in the spring, so 
that the plant will make a better growth than one planted in 
the spring. 

I would advise buying from the nearest nurseryman all 
plants that he can supply. There are several reasons for this. 
First you can visit his place in the growing season and see the 
plants and make your selection. Your own man is as reliable 



44 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

as one one hundred or one thousand miles away and being 
close by you can easily get anything made good if any cause 
should arise for this, also you can get your plants dug up, 
delivered and replanted without any unnecessary delay, which 
is an advantage. 

Roses from a distance may be dried up on arrival. If so it 
is well to take off all the covering and bury them completely in 
moist loam, leaving them there at least three days. Be- 
fore planting look them over and with a sharp knife cut off 
any broken roots, taking care to save all the small fibrous feed- 
ing roots. Dig a hole large enough to take in all the roots, 
and spread them out without crossing them over each other. 
Fill in good soil around and between the roots and tamp it 
down with a piece of hard wood. The end of an old broom 
handle makes a good tamping stick for this purpose. After 
this preliminary covering of the roots fill in the hole com- 
pletely and tread down with the feet. A still, cloudy day is 
best for planting, but if you cannot wait for this, keep the 
plants in a pail of water and take them out one at a time as 
needed. A large handful of clayey soil thrown into the water 
pail and stirred with a stick makes a mud bath for the 
roots and keeps the air from drying them and insures the life 
and growth of nearly every plant treated in this way. 

If the planting is at all extensive some record should be 
made of the name and location of each variety. If you buy 
plants with labels that are fastened with wire see that the wire 
is not tight enough to cut the bark. It is best to remove the 
wire for in time as the plants grow this is liable to cut 
through the bark and into the wood and kill the plant or so 
weaken it that a strong wind will break it off. 

Own root Roses may be planted just below the. surface of 
the ground, and may be planted closer together than plants 
grafted on to a strong growing stock. Plants on Manetti 
stock should be planted about three inches below the union of 
stock and scion to reduce the danger of suckering and to 
strengthen the plant. Those on Multiflora stock need not be 
more than one and one half inches below the graft, as they are 
raised mostly from seed and are usually budded below the 
dormant eyes. Plants with an admixture of Brier blood in 
them do well on their own roots as Briers have a good root 
system. The Tea Roses are best budded on Brier roots, but 



GROWING ROSES IN THE HOME GARDEN 45 

the Hybrid Perpetuals do well on Manetti. Those on Multi- 
flora require more room than on Manetti or Brier, other things 
being the same. Yellow Roses as a rule do not do well on 
Manetti stock. As before stated no fresh manure should come 
in contact with the roots but a hole may be dug and a foot of 
manure may be put in, trodden down and then covered with 
a little loam and the plant may be set out in the regular way 
on top of the manure. A hole must be dug in the first place 
deep enough so that the plant will be low enough when planted. 
The question whether to plant own root or budded stock 
has troubled some people. Both kinds have certain advan- 
tages. The weak growing kinds are benefited by grafting or 
budding on to a strong stock, and will grow much faster and 
give greater returns the first few years. Own root plants are 
much smaller and somewhat lower in first cost. It hardly 
pays to buy less than two-year-old plants. They have an ad- 
vantage that if the top should be winterkilled there is gener- 
ally life left down below so that new shoots start up in the 
spring, while with budded stock there may be nothing left 
alive but the wild stock. 

Order early in the season as by so doing you have a chance 
of getting a better selection, and of getting your order filled 
early when you want it. If the plants should come in the 
spring before you are ready for them, bury them in loam if 
they are dry, or heel them in. If the ground is ready in the 
fall and the plants do not arrive as soon as expected you can 
cover the bed with manure, leaves or litter to keep it from 
freezing. Then as soon as planted you may cover up again to 
keep out the frost for a time until the roots get a chance to 
start. This refers to cases where very late planting has to be 
done. 

All Roses should have the ground hilled up to them in the 
fall before the ground freezes, and then when everything is 
frozen solid, a covering of manure, or strawy litter, may be 
spread around them. This, however, should not be put on 
until the mice have gone into their winter quarters. The 
danger of winterkilling is not so much from the cold, as from 
the rapid changes of temperature. If we keep the sun away 
from our plants, (and this applies to many of our garden 
shrubs) they will not suffer, but when we get zero nights and 
biting winds, with a hot spring sun, or intense cold after a 



46 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

very unseasonably warm spell, the changes of cold and heat 
rupture the bark and kill the wood. The evaporation may also 
be great at a time when the ground is ^frozen so that the plant 
cannot get moisture in sufficient quantity to supply its needs. 

Immature or unripened wood is more easily killed than well 
ripened wood, which is why we make every attempt to get well 
ripened wood before fall. We get this by feeding early to* 
promote an early growth, by cutting out such shoots as may be 
overcrowded, by tying up others to admit the sun and air, 
and by withholding water and food after the growth is well 
advanced in summer. 

In the spring the rough material may be removed or forked 
into the ground without digging up the roots, the soil that was 
hilled up to the plants being levelled down and made fairly 
smooth so as to prevent too rapid drying out. The next opera- 
tion with the Teas and Hybrid Teas is pruning. Sometimes 
the amateur is puzzled to know whether the wood is alive or 
not but when you cut off a shoot and the pith is white you 
may know that the wood is alive. We prune for several 
reasons — to take out dead wood, and small weak shoots, to 
throw the strength into the remaining shoots, and to keep the 
plants in good health and shape. If we want a few extra large 
flowers we cut the plants back hard, and then, for show 
flowers, we rub off some of the buds that swell, leaving only 
three to five of the best placed and strongest. For a lot of 
flowers of a lower grade do not prune so hard, but just cut 
out the dead wood and shorten the other shoots to about 
eighteen inches above the ground. Prune hard the first spring 
after planting, as there will not be enough root action to carry 
a large top. Prune as early in the spring as convenient or as 
soon as the danger of winterkilling is over. 

All Eoses of the Brier type should not be pruned much. 
The Baby Rambler Roses need no pruning except to thin out 
weak or crowded shoots and to cut off the old flower stems. 

Rugosas may have the longest canes shortened back to make 
a thick bush and if these plants get too large for their position 
they may be cut down to the ground when they will start 
afresh, but there will be few, if any, flowers for a year after 
this. 

Climbers need little pruning but should have the old and 
poor canes cut out as soon as they have flowered to make room 



GROWING ROSES IN THE HOME GARDEN 47 

for the new canes. In the spring all dead canes should be 
cut out, and also as the new canes start, if they are plentiful 
and the bottom of the bush is leggy and bare, one or more of 
these weak canes may be shortened as they are growing to 
help clothe the lower part, or these may be bent over and 
tied down when they will break out from the eyes and produce 
more shoots. Too long shoots may be shortened or tied into 
the required shape. After flowering train the new shoots for 
next year. A great many of our present day climbers are of 
Multiflora or Wichuraian origin and require little pruning. 
Cut out the dead wood and remove the weak shoots. The 
Multiflora hybrids flower first so that by having them in com- 
bination with the Wichuraiana hybrids the season is prolonged. 

We prune in the fall only with newly planted stock to 
prevent the drain on the plant and to prevent the long shoots 
thrashing around in the wind and disturbing the new roots 
that are taking hold of the ground, or to prevent breakage 
by wind or snow. In the case of established plants these may 
be tied up to prevent breakage. The summer culture consists 
of feeding, watering, mulching, cultivating, etc. During the 
growing season syringe heavily with a sharp stream from a 
nozzle to dislodge insect pests. A force of at least 40 pounds 
is needed for this. 

Watering is best done in the early morning except that in 
the hottest weather it may also be done in the evening. Mulch 
with a good covering to prevent evaporation and water with 
liquid manure for the best result. It is not necessary to use 
unsightly manure for a mulch. The clippings from the lawn 
or similar material may be used and peat moss is being used 
with good results for this purpose. When cutting the flowers, 
cut to a good strong eye, those with weak stems cut back hard, 
strong ones less. Take off all dead flowers, taking the two top 
eyes with them and the plants will be kept in better shape. 
They will grow faster and produce more flowers. Cultivate 
and fertilize during the growing season. 

Roses are propagated by seeds, by cuttings, by layering and 
sometimes by root division. Cuttings may be taken by anyone, 
of soft or half ripened wood and rooted in sand. Get clean, 
sharp sand, fill a flower pot or a flat, pound it down hard and 
soak well. There must be drainage. The cuttings may be 
inserted by making holes with a pointed stick and then press- 



48 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

ing the sand around them and watering them in well. Keep 
them wet for about two weeks and after that withhold the water 
somewhat, but keep them in a fairly warm place out of direct 
sunlight. A place about as warm as where they were growing 
is considered right for winter culture but the amateur will get 
most of his cuttings in the summer time. Some people are 
successful with cuttings in a flower pot covered with a fruit 
jar. It is better to have the temperature of the sand five 
degrees or so warmer than the outer air. Cuttings of half 
ripened wood may be rooted in a hotbed in August with little 
trouble and expense. A frame that was used for spring stock 
may be cleaned of all rubbish. Tread down and level the loam, 
cover it with a few inches of good sand, pound down, smooth, 
water well, insert cuttings, and shade from the strong sun. 
Keep close to prevent wilting and only give as much ventila- 
tion at first as is realty necessary to keep the conditions right 
inside the frame. A cool, cloudy spell of weather would be 
the best time to start with this. Water the cuttings well after 
insertion in the frame. These cuttings may be left in the 
frame and protected over the first winter and then set out in 
the reserve garden to make growth or planted in their perma- 
nent positions. 

Layering is only practiced with such kinds as do not root 
well from cuttings. This operation consists of bending down 
a shoot or branch, making a notch in it with a knife, burying 
it in prepared loam and holding it down in place with a flat 
stone until it is rooted. It may then be cut off from the 
parent plant and planted where it is to remain. The Persian 
yellow is a good example of a Rose that may be increased by 
the layering method. 

Some species as rugosa, lucida, alpina, also the Damask 
and Province hybrids throw up suckers, which may be dug up, 
shortened back to about eight inches and planted in the regu- 
lar way. 

The battle with insect pests begins early in May with the 
leaf roller or slug and a good remedy for this is to dust White 
Hellebore on the plants as soon as the second leaf shows, 
after a rain, several times during the growing season if neces- 
sary. If the weather is very dry spray first and while the 
foliage is still damp apply the dust, getting it underneath as 



GROWING ROSES IN THE HOME GARDEN 49 

well as on top of the foliage. If a heavy rain should wash it 
off apply again. 

Hand picking is the remedy for Rose bugs. It is well to 
carry a small can or bottle of kerosene along and drop the 
bugs into it as they are picked off. As these bugs generally 
attack the white and light colored flowers it has been recom- 
mended to plant white flowering shrubs near the Roses, as 
white Wiegelias or Viburnums. For the leaf roller use one 
pound of Paris green to 10 pounds of sulphur. 

Greenfly is a well known, small green crawling insect that 
multiplies very rapidly in warm muggy weather. Several 
applications of an insecticide are necessary as the young 
emerge from the dead bodies of the fly killed by the first appli- 
cation. The latest remedy is a very simple one and well worth 
trying — quarter package of Lux to a gallon of water used as 
a spray. An ounce of Black Leaf 40, seven and one half 
ounces of soft soap and five gallons of water, applied as a 
fine mist is effective. For white fly and thrips take one 
gallon of boiling water, four ounces of soft soap and two 
sheets of aphis punk, stir well and when cool add four gallons 
of water. Strain before using. 

Red spider outdoors may be kept in check by repeated 
use of the hose with a sharp spray, getting it well underneath 
the foliage. This pest is most likely to be troublesome in a hot 
dry season. Mildew is a disease on the foliage and is pro- 
gressive in its action. It begins with a small patch and if 
unchecked will spread over the garden. Varieties that mildew 
should be planted in a sunny location away from draughty 
places. A remedy from the American Rose Society's Annual is 
one ounce of baking soda to a gallon of water used as a spray. 
To make this remedy effective against greenfly it is advised 
to add one tablespoonful of ammonia. 

Mildew is most prevalent in muggy weather or when the 
days are very hot and the nights are cold. A good dry mixture 
for mildew and greenfly is nine parts sulphur, and one part 
powdered arsenate of lead. Grape dust is also effective and 
being ready mixed is easily applied. 

Black spot is a disease within the leaf and unlike mildew in 
another respect it is not progressive but simultaneous in its 
action and will defoliate a plant in a very little time. Preven- 
tion is better than cure. In fact, when the leaves begin to 



50 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

fall off there is no cure for those leaves that are affected. A 
very simple and effective remedy that was recently published 
in the Florists Exchange, is vouched for by Mr. U. S. Lodge 
of Tacoma, Washington. This is to dissolve three quarters 
of an ounce of dry sodium carbonate (which may be bought 
from a druggist or from a photograph supply house) in a small 
quantity of hot water, and then add enough water to make 
one gallon. This may also be bought in an impure form under 
the name of washing soda or soda ash, but as it contains some 
water, double the quantity, or one and one half ounces to the 
gallon is used. Spray with this mixture every ten days dur- 
ing the growing season. Two ounces of sulphate of copper 
dissolved in one pint of ammonia and added to three gallons 
of water may be used as a spray. As a dust cover use one 
pound of finely ground arsenate of lead, nine pounds sulphur, 
and one pound fine tobacco dust. This will kill greenfly as 
well as keep the spot under control and may be mixed ahead 
in quantity sufficient for the season. If washed off by heavy 
rains all such coverings should be renewed as needed. When 
applying any mixture for spray or dust it is well to try it out 
on a small patch at first as materials vary in strength and 
plants burn at times under varying conditions of growth. All 
diseased leaves should be raked up and burned. 

I recommend the Library of the Massachusetts Horticul- 
tural Society and the yearly publications of the American Rose 
Society for valuable information on Rose culture and on the 
best varieties to plant in New England and also in other sec- 
tions of the country. The information to be derived from 
either society is worth many times the cost of membership. 
In these days of high prices it is remarkable how we can obtain 
so much in this way for such a small outlay. 



List of Desirable Rock Plants for 
New England 

Compiled by W. N. Craig 

Alyssum saxatile comp actum. 

Arabis albida, single and double. 

Aubretia Wallacei and purpurea. 

Arenaria montana and caespitosa. 

Armeria maritima and plantaginea. 

Aster alpinus. 

Ajuga genevensis. 

Aquilegia canadensis and the long spurred hybrids. 

Phlox subulata in variety, amoena and divaricata. 

Gypsophila repens and muralis. 

Campanula carpatica, blue and white, rotundifolia, Loreyi. 

Viola cornuta atro-purpurea, alba, Purple Robe, and gracilis. 

Cerastium tomentosum. 

Cheiranthus Allionii, best treated as a biennial, but seeds 
freely. 

Dicentra eximea formosa. 

Silene maritima, schafta and alpestris. 

Polemonium reptans. 

Dianthus plumarius in variety, caesius, and deltoides in sev- 
eral colors. 

Daphne cneorum, evergreen, and blooms over a long season. 

Sedum acre, album, stoloniferum, Sieboldii and sexangulare. 

Sempervivum triste, well adaptable for the driest locations. 

Thymus lanuginosa and serpyllum. 

Statice latifolia. 

Linum perenne and alpinum. 

Papaver nudicaule and alpinum. 

Epimediums in variety. 

Helianthemum, all varieties, 

Iberis sempervirens and the lavender gibraltarica. The latter 
not so hardy but very beautiful and worth raising from 
seeds annually if necessary. 

51 







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LIST OF DESIRABLE ROCK PLANTS FOR NEW ENGLAND 53 

Plumbago larpentae, needs well drained pockets and more 

winter protection than most rock plants. 
Saponaria ocymoides. 
Geranium sanguineum. 
Iris cristata and pumila. 
Leontopodium alpinum (the well known Edelweiss), of easy 

culture. 
Saxifraga virginiensis and Macnabiana. 
ftlyosotis in variety. 
Helleborus niger. 
Veronica rupestris and repens. 
Heuchera sanguinea and Nancy Perry. 
Primula denticulata, pulverulenta, veris and vulgaris (in 

shade). 
Potentilla tridentata. 
Nepeta Mussinii. 
Prunella Webbiana. 
Lotus corniculatus. 

Linaria cymbalaria, reproduces itself from seeds freely. 
Hepaticas. 

Lithospermum prostratum. 
Asperula odorata. 
Calluna vulgaris. 
Such bulbous plants as Chionodoxas, Fritillaria Meleagris, 

Galanthus, Scillas, small flowered Narcissi like minimus, 

cernuus, Queen of Spain, and campernelles. 
Tulips like Clusiana the dainty - ' Lady tulip, ' ' Kauffmanniana, 

sylvestris and persica. 
Crocus, species like zonatus and Tomasinianus. 
Dwarf evergreens and occasional plants of thin slender habit 

like Juniperus virginiana. 
Occasional taller plants like Foxgloves; Yuccas for higher 

elevations where very dry. Ferns for the more shady lo- 
cations if not too robust. 
Low evergreens like Pachysandra terminalis, Bearberry, and 

Evonymus radicans minima. 
Where there is sufficient space plants of Cotoneaster horizon- 

talis perpusilla are useful. 



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The Late Thomas Allen 

Thomas Allen, a vice president of this Society, died on the 
25th of August in his seventy-fifth year. Mr. Allen was born 
in St. Louis on October 19, 1849, and was by profession an 
artist, having studied painting for three years in Europe, 
and first exhibited examples of his work at the National 
Academy of Design in 1877, and at the Paris Salon in 1882, 
1887 and 1889. As an artist he performed useful service in 
Boston as a trustee and finally as acting president of the 
Museum of Fine Arts; and since 1910 as Chairman of the 
Art Commission of the City of Boston. 

Mr. Allen maintained for many years a fine estate near 
Princeton, Massachusetts, famous for its native growth of 
Laurel (Kalmia latifolia) which attracted every year many 
visitors. He was elected a member of this Society in 1898, a 
trustee in 1912, and in 1921 he became one of its vice presi- 
dents. 

As chairman of the committee on exhibitions, Mr. Allen's 
artistic training was put to good use in the arrangements of 
our exhibitions, and it was he who was responsible for the re- 
decorating of the large exhibition hall, personally raising 
much of the money required for this work. Few men in re- 
cent years have taken more interest in the success of the 
Society or done more to increase its usefulness. 

C. S. Sargent. 
Arnold Arboretum. 



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Growing of Peonies* 

I feel an unaccustomed accession oi; modesty when I speak 
before an audience like this, and I feel as if the knowledge 
that I have been able to accumulate regarding Peonies during 
the last 25 years is probably not as large as many of you would 
accumulate in one or two seasons ; but such as it is, I modestly 
lay it at your feet. In order that we may leave nothing ob- 
scure in the general message which I wish to bring to you, I 
should like first of all to say something about the various kinds 
of Peonies which are in cultivation in our gardens — your 
garden and mine — mine, anyway. 

The Peony as we ordinarily understand the word and use 
it, is the Peony staged upstairs this afternoon. What is that 
plant? All those forms which we see staged in the great ex- 
hibition which is going on upstairs are derivatives of a species 
which appeared wild in China, called by botanists Paeonia 
albiflora, white flowered, or Paeonia sinensis, the Chinese 
Peony. Out of that flower have been developed all the im- 
mense variety of flowers which we now call Chinese Peonies. 
When we speak of the Chinese Peony we mean those staged 
upstairs, those which bloom from the 10th of June until the 
4th of July in a normal season, in this latitude. 

All these Peonies before me on the table are, of course, of 
that kind, and I brought them because I want later on to say 
something about the different types of blooms which have 
been developed from Paeonia sinensis. I wanted also to say some- 
thing about other groups, other species which have been found 
particularly amenable to cultivation. This seems to be true, 
that among the many wild species of plants which nature has 
offered us to work on if we will, a few are particularly suscep- 
tible to improvement, and those have yielded to us our won- 
derful garden flowers, either by the growing of seedlings and 
selecting the best types, or by cross fertilization of one species 
on another. You cannot be sure if you start on a wild species 



*A lecture bv Prof. A. P. Saunders of Clinton, N. Y., delivered at the Peony 
Exhibit June 21, 1924. 

57 



58 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

and cultivate it diligently that it will develop such beautiful 
forms as have been developed in this Peony. You find the 
same thing in the animal kingdom, man trying to domesti- 
cate animals from the remotest time until now. And how 
many has he been able to domesticate? Very few. The dog, 
the cat, the horse, the cow and chickens. Few others. Multi- 
tudes of animals have been worked on — bear cubs, lion cubs — 
but usually there has been more fun for the lion than the man 
in the end if it is kept up long enough. 

So we find that a great many species of plants will not lend 
themselves particularly to improvement under man's hand. 

How far back does the Peony go ? Let us trace its history. 
In the hall is a magnificent display of Peonies. Where did 
most of them come from? Some varieties were originated by 
American growers. 

But long before Americans began the work, the French were 
at work raising seedlings and selecting the best. Where did the 
French get their Peonies? In 1805-6 they were first brought 
over from China and introduced to European gardens, and 
enthusiasts there immediately started in to raise seedlings and 
to improve upon the varieties which had come over from 
China. From France and Belgium enthusiasm spread to Eng- 
land and the work began there, and in America later on the 
same process was taken up. 

Boston has the credit of being the center at which the whole 
of this phase of Peony culture in America started. Its serious 
performance began here through John Richardson, who lived 
in Dorchester. As to what sort of a man he was I cannot give 
you any idea, but he was a professor at Harvard — no doubt a 
good man. But he was far more than that. He was an expert. 
He had the divine gift of penetration. Somehow he knew 
whereabouts to select his seed and what plants to use for cross 
fertilization in order to produce a marvellous type of progeny. 
John Richardson had only a small garden. It could by no 
means be called a nursery. His little garden most Peony 
growers would consider insignificant. He did not even have 
the best Peonies, but a very modest collection, and yet today 
Peony men try and generally try in vain to produce varieties 
as good as the best John Richardson produced. If you are 
interested in knowing the particular varieties of Richardson's 
which I have in mind when I speak so highly of him, I would 



GROWING OF PEONIES 59 

mention to you before any others Walter Faxon, and for a par- 
ticular reason; then Milton Hill, and Grandiflora ; and then 
stop. A man who has made three Peonies as good as those 
may very well rest on his laurels. Walter Faxon I mention 
first of all for this reason. It has always been easy to grow 
beautiful white Peonies — Peonies that are white or pale flesh 
colored. In modern times we get such things as this in my 
hand — very pretty flesh colored things — hundreds of them. 
We get also fine dark reds and mahogany reds. But in the full 
pinks, darker than this but somewhat in the color of this we 
have very little among the double Peonies that is satisfactory 
to us. The full pink Peonies are apt to run too much into 
purplish reds, into disagreeable purples, into muddy and dis- 
gusting magentas, and those things have short shift in my 
patch and equally short shift in the gardens of others who 
raise Peonies. If I buy Peonies and find that they have this 
color, they go into the large dump which I keep for the Ish- 
maels. Now Walter Faxon is a full pink, of a fine glowing 
salmon shade and is therefore a peculiarly precious sort. It is 
in fact quite unique. 

John Richardson died in 1887, at a very ripe old age. There 
is a moral I have pointed out before which I will point out 
again here. Life is after all very interesting. There are none 
of us who like to be done with it when the time comes, and 
means of prolonging life have been sought by alchemists and 
many others from ancient times. At last I have discovered 
one. The art of prolonging life is to raise Peonies from seed. 
Yes ! Because it is the will to live that fails us in the end. 
When we get old, our interests in life become weaker, and 
eventually fail altogether, and we have done with it. But if a 
patch of seedling Peonies is coming into bloom in June and 
the thought should come to us that our life had lasted long 
enough and perhaps it was time for the end, we should surely 
say: 

"Postpone it until the first of July so that I can see my 
Peonies bloom." 

John Richardson lived to the advanced age of 89, I think. 
Almost all the men who have grown Peonies from seed have 
lived to be at least 85. That is one reason why I took it up. 
I wanted 30 years more of Peony culture, and could see no way 
more certain to give it to me than that. I recommend it to you 



CO MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

all. Most of you don't need it. You don't have to think of the 
advancing years ; but to the few, my contemporaries, I recom- 
mend this as the means of warding off the devastating effects 
of increasing years ; for if you save Peony seed this year, put 
it into the ground this autumn, you have the pleasure of busy- 
ing yourself with other pursuits until the spring of 1926. 
Peony seed germinates usually the second spring after plant- 
ing. People, of course, may affect to marvel at anyone want- 
ing to plant seed which takes two years to germinate. They 
think we put a chair down and watch the bed to see it shoot 
up. But no, we put the Peony seed into the ground and go 
about our business. All have business, such as it is. In the 
course of a year and a half, the Peonies come up, and when 
they come up you rejoice in them. 

For they are the dearest things ! Little tiny shoots of red, 
one leaf or perhaps two, a little bit bigger than my thumb 
nail. The remarkable thing is to look at the plants and reflect 
on what is in them. You marvel how such tiny creatures can 
contain in them the possibility of producing such lovely 
blooms, and no two alike. They are already persons in the 
true sense. You watch their development just as you watch 
the development of your other children, and like other children 
they sometimes turn out better and sometimes not so well. 
When your Peony children turn out badly, you root them out 
and throw them away. 

Another great group of Peonies are those called, in derision, 
I sometimes think, Tree Peonies. The name, Tree Peony, sug- 
gests straining the neck to look at it. You do strain the. neck, 
but you strain it looking down, not up. They grow three feet 
high with me, but it is true in England they grow six or eight 
feet high. 

The Tree Peony is a development from a totally different 
kind than the Chinese Peony because it makes a permanent 
woody growth. These Chinese Peonies are what is called 
herbaceous in habit. They have a complicated system of big 
roots under ground. Each year the foliage dies down and 
nothing is visible whatever. Buds form upon the crowns 
underground which next spring shoot up through the soil and 
become the flowering branches of that year. Tree Peonies, P. 
moutan or arborea, make permanent woody growth above 
ground, and form flower buds for next year in the axils of this 



GROWING OF PEONIES 61 

year's leaves. These are forming now to make new brandies 
next year and next year's flowers. This plant has been culti- 
vated by the Chinese for many centuries, and is one of their 
favorite plants. You hear more about Tree Peonies in China 
than you do about the herbaceous Peonies, probably because 
the Chinese consider the Tree Peony superior to the herba- 
ceous, and in that judgment I most heartily concur. The 
herbaceous Peonies have not the subtle delicacy of the Chinese 
Tree Peonies, have not the astonishing range of color and the 
wonderful pinks. Those pinks in the Tree Peonies are of the 
most enchanting beauty, incredible. They also have whites, 
dark reds and flesh colors in just as rich variety as you need. 

Tree Peonies have been the favorite motive for Chinese 
painters and porcelain workers from remote antiquity. Yases 
many centuries old have Peonies on them — very highly culti- 
vated garden forms, showing that the plant had been in culti- 
vation for a very long time. No one can guess when the 
Chinese began the cultivation of these Peonies. Probably back 
to the beginning of the Christian era or before. The group of 
Chinese Tree Peonies is a marvellous group of plants and no- 
body should profess to be a Peony fancier and not make a tre- 
mendous effort to have Tree Peonies in his garden. The effort 
is often disproportionate to the results with these plants. 
With the herbaceous type you order roots or sow seeds and put 
them in the ground, and you need give them scarcely a thought 
for fifteen or twenty years. But with the Tree Peonies you 
must think of them day and night, because they are liable to 
attacks of strange maladies, and have one particularly annoy- 
ing trick. In the morning you go out and look at a plant full 
of buds and think how fine it is. In the evening you go to look 
at .it again and find that the plant is entirely withered and 
dead. This happens, it is true, only once in a while, but once 
is more than enough if it is a beautiful and valuable plant. 

With these Chinese Peonies of the herbaceous type the buds 
form upon the crowns of the plants. In order to multiply 
those plants they need only be dug up and have the crown 
cut into sections, and every section that carries roots and a 
bud will be a new plant. It will soon shoot up and establish 
itself. But what are you going to do with the Tree Peony? 
How will you multiply it? If you slit the stem in two and 
make two plants, both will die. You will reduce your stock 



62 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

from one to zero. There is apparently no way but grafting. 
The Japanese have grafted Tree Peonies, taking parts of the 
branches at the right season, which is August, and grafting 
them into other Tree Peony roots. Unfortunately they use as 
stock a type of Tree Peony which is objectionable, with 
flowers as large as a man's hat, and the most glaring shade of 
magenta purple ever invented. The moment they come into 
bloom they have to be dug out and thrown away. That is the 
stock on which the Japanese graft. That stock sends up 
suckers, and if you graft a delicate and beautiful variety on a 
plant which forms vulgar and vigorous suckers, the little 
scion will be crowded out and die. The way to prevent this 
is to cut out the suckers, but how can you tell? You can't 
always be quite sure which is the stock and which the graft. 
The result is you are left in doubt, and you are indeed the 
man who hesitates and is lost, because if you leave the suckers 
they will soon crowd out the graft and kill it. 

The European growers, on the other hand, have grafted the 
Tree Peonies on to the roots of the herbaceous Peonies — which 
does very well in some varieties and very poorly in others. 
Some bloom luxuriantly ; others do not bloom for years. 

In the old days, before the existence of Quarantine 37, all 
we needed to do to get Tree Peony plants was to write an order 
to France or England ; or order from our own nurseryman 
who in turn sent the order abroad. Under present restrictions 
no Tree Peonies can be imported for sale from abroad, and 
there are almost none for sale in America. I know of, I think, 
only one place in America where Tree Peonies are offered. for 
sale. Mr. Farr, of Wyomissing, has some plants ; not many. 
What are we going to do about it? You say, "Why does he 
tell us about Tree Peonies and say they are so beautiful and 
then not tell us how we can get them ? " I can tell you. It 's a 
long process, requiring determination and devotion; but the 
only sound method is to grow them yourself from seed. There 
will be no trouble from grafts or shoots from the stock if you 
have Peony seedlings. They are your own and they are perma- 
nent, very healthy, and will bloom regularly. 

I used to be asked : ' ' Yes, but what guarantee have you that 
your seedlings will be of sufficiently good quality to be satisfac- 
tory?" I had to wait for the answer to that until they 
bloomed. I have had from fifty to sixty in full bloom this 



GROWING OF PEONIES 63 

year, some with fifteen or eighteen flowers apiece. They are 
as good on the average as the stock we used to buy. either in 
Japan or Europe. 

I suppose you have some curiosity as to where you can get 
your seed. Well, there is no seed to be had, either, in America. 
Neither plants nor seed. 

I can suggest only one thing. That is that you come to me 
for it. I have 100 Tree Peony plants that have bloomed for 
me this year. Most will set seed, and I shall probably have 
1000 or more seeds. Those who want to try a few need only 
give me your names. In the autumn I will send you small 
packages, according to the size of the crop and the number of 
requests. 

You may not have much success in growing them. But if 
you do have patience and determination to grow Tree Peonies 
from seed or in any other way, you will never regret it. The 
flowers are of incomparable beauty. 

There are two more groups that I should like to speak to 
you about though very briefly. Both species which I have 
spoken of are Chinese plants. Now there is a species native 
to Europe, P. officinalis, the Peony of the apothecary. From 
ancient records the Peony was esteemed a remedy for certain 
diseases, being considered to have some kind of medicinal 
properties. P. officinalis, the crimson native species of Europe 
marks by its name the use which was made of it. Out of that 
wild species have been developed a number of garden forms, 
15 or 20 perhaps, among which the old double crimson Peony 
is the common one, and perhaps the best known of all Peonies. 
It is exceedingly common in New York, but is not quite so 
widely disseminated in Massachusetts; but is a very pretty 
plant. That group, the Officinalis group, also blooms earlier, 
and normally they are all over before the Chinese group be- 
gins. 

Now it may seem to you that this talk is rambling, but I am 
really keeping my thoughts pretty close to one theme. I am 
trying to answer the reproach that is cast upon the Peony 
very often, that it has too short a season. Well, the Chinese 
Peony has a short season. It has a season of about three weeks, 
and we see no way of extending that season except by cold 
storage, which prolongs it into midsummer, but that is of no 
use to the grower; only to the cut flower man. The way to 



64 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

extend the Peony season is by using first of all in the Chinese 
Peonies themselves both the very early varieties and the very 
late varieties, and then taking on the Tree Peonies and the 
Officinalis varieties with those, and then another group still, 
which comes before the Tree Peonies ; and then you will be 
able to get a Peony season about six weeks long every year. 

If 3^ou get as enthusiastic over the Peony as the so-called 
Peony fan so that you are considered more or less demented — 
you may even be glad when the season is over. When you 
wake up every morning dozens of new things are in bloom. 
You drag. your friends out to see them — very reluctantly, as 
a rule ; otherwise they would have gardens of their own. You 
drag them out, and that is a fatiguing process for you as well 
as for them. You compare your Peonies with those which you 
see at the shows, as to name, color, etc. — in short you are so 
busy with your Peonies from morning till night that you will 
conclude six weeks is just about the right time for the Peony 
season ; and I am showing how you can have this season of 
Peonies. 

The Chinese Peonies for three weeks, and for two weeks 
preceding them the Tree Peonies and Officinalis varieties. 
The Officinalis varieties have not been nearly as much devel- 
oped as they should be. Very little work has been done with 
them. There are double crimson, double pink, double white, 
mauve pink and single crimson. But there is not the variety 
of color that there ought to be. There is a field for Peony 
enthusiasts, to produce new forms of Officinalis. 

Then there is a new group which has just come into our 
gardens in recent years, which is exceedingly precious. There 
are but few varieties, but these are of the highest beauty. 
They are derived from a species of Peony discovered in the 
Caucasus, called P. Wittmanniana. That species has been 
used as the pollen parent by the great hybridizer Lemoine of 
Nancy. He has taken pollen from Wittmanniana, crossing 
that very early species with later flowering sorts, and has pro- 
duced a race of hybrids very much like the male parent — very 
early flowers, foliage of the male parent, but the species Witt- 
manniana is white and the crossing with the Chinese blood 
has given us progeny which vary in color. The best of these 
sorts, in my opinion, are Mai Fleuri and Le Printemps, and 
they are of very great beauty. I never fully appreciated them 



GROWING OF PEONIES 65 

until this year. Something in the slow, cool, moist season 
this spring has enabled the Wittmanniana hybrids to develop 
to a degree of perfection never before equalled. During a 
few days, for they have a very short season, they were as 
lovely as anything I ever had in my garden. The flowers are 
single, and the colors are indescribable, being very much 
mixed. The petals have stripes of pink on a background of 
pale coffee color, — very weak coffee color. Imagine a white 
Peony dipped in coffee first of all, and then stained green and 
yellow, and then painted rose near the edges. These are 
extraordinary plants and have come to stay. They bloom nor- 
mally from the 20th to the 25th of May. That is three weeks 
before the Chinese Peonies begin. They are very precious to 
us indeed, and I am sure that they are going to be further 
developed. 

I hoped indeed that I might have something interesting to say 
about a number of such hybrids which bloomed for the first 
time with me this year. I had about two dozen Wittmanniana 
and sinensis crosses in bloom. A great many go back com- 
pletely into the male parent and show no trace whatever of 
having been crossed. That seems very curious, when you take 
pollen from this species and put it on as different a species as 
the Chinese Peony, and then take seed from the Chinese plant 
and find that the seedlings have the leafage and character and 
bloom and color, all the beauty of the male parent. The 
mother plant is completely submerged. The characters of the 
male parent are dominant in the first generation. The char- 
acters of the female parent completely disappear. Save seed 
from the hybrids and in that progeny you are bound to get 
sports partly towards the male and partly towards Chinese 
Peonies. There is only one flaw in this. These hybrids do not 
set seed. I have 25 or 30 varieties, and all have pods. The 
pod swells up as if it were full of seed and I think: "This 
time I have got some." Later on in the summer the pods 
burst, and they are empty. These are some of the strange 
mysteries in connection with cross fertilization in plants, mys- 
teries over which one may ponder much and go forward not 
at all. 

There is a curious story in connection with the next group 
of which I wish to speak. In 1883 a French priest travelling 
in the mountains of southwestern China discovered a plant 



66 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

which looked as though it had the character of a Peony. 
He sent seeds home to Paris where they were planted. It 
grew to be a Peony indeed and was found to be a bright yellow 
flowered species. This was named P. lutea; the bloom is two 
inches across and as bright yellow as a buttercup, with deli- 
cious fragrance more like a Lily — sweet and very agreeable. 
Now Lutea is a shrubby Peony, like the Chinese Tree Peonies, 
and Lemoine has made crosses between Lutea and Tree 
Peonies, and has introduced into commerce some two or three 
varieties which are large double yellow Peonies — big as these 
blooms before me and bright yellow, magnificent and extraor- 
dinary looking things. You would say somebody had dyed 
them. There is no need, because they come that way naturalryT 

This cross of the yellow Peony with the Chinese Tree Peony 
is a cross easily made, and you are likely to get occasionally a 
well developed seed. When I first began to make that cross 
I was sure I was going to be successful. I crossed from the 
Chinese Peony on to the Lutea plant, and the pods grew 
bigger and bigger throughout the summer. Evidently they 
were filled with seed. But in the autumn when I pressed one 
of these big seeds in my fingers it burst, and there was nothing 
in it. The problem which has always interested me is, what is 
the nature of that act of fertilization; for a Peony bloom that 
is unfertilized does not develop seed pods, but these pods grow 
all summer and are filled with enormous glistening black seeds, 
and those seeds are nothing but a covering. They have no 
contents. I should like to know what the process is which 
leads to the development of everything except the individual 
— all the appurtenances but not the person. 

I have mentioned the Chinese Peony as constituting the 
backbone of Peony culture, and since I have a few minutes 
more, I should like to say a few words regarding the various 
types of bloom that have been worked out in this particular 
group. 

First the true singles. These consist typically of a single 
row of petals surrounding a cluster of pollen-bearing stamens 
with the stigma in the centre. These are easily identified, for 
if you will rub the finger gently over the stamens you will find 
it liberally powdered over with the yellow pollen. 

Similar to the singles in appearance are the so-called Japan- 
ese type. In these flowers the stamens have really been trans- 



GROWING OF PEONIES 67 

formed into stamen-like petals. These petals often have 
thickened yellow ends very much like the anthers on the end 
of the stamens in the single type ; but if you will rub your 
ringer over these you will rarely get the slightest trace of 
pollen. The thickened yellow edges really do contain pollen, 
but they very rarely burst so as to shed the pollen. However, 
if you want some pollen from flowers of the Japanese type, it 
can easily be had by slitting open one of these swelled edges 
with a knife blade, and scraping off some of the pollen which 
will be found inside. 

In the true double flower the transformation of the stamens 
has gone still farther and they have now been changed into 
broad clear colored petals. Sometimes these are interspersed 
with pollen bearing stamens, and in that case we have what is 
called a semi-double flower. Occasionally we have a variety in 
which not only the stamens but even the stigma and the seed 
vessels have been transformed into petals. Such a bloom 
is completely double, and is incapable of producing seed. 

The preference in Europe and America has been for the 
double type of flower, and we distinguish in this group various 
forms known as bomb, crown, rose, and semi-rose, according to 
their particular shapes and the arrangement of the petals. 
But in recent years the Peony growers of America have begun 
to turn their attention more and more to the Japanese type 
of bloom. My own impression is that we have begun to tire 
of the ever-increasing size and bulk of the full double flowers 
and to seek relief in a less heavy flower, one that is more likely 
to support itself without tying up, and which makes a better 
showing as a garden plant. But it must be admitted that as 
cut flowers the Japanese sorts are very fine too, and I hope that 
within a few years we shall find them much more widely culti- 
vated in gardens than we have in the past. 

I have long advocated the idea that all who love Peonies 
should not limit themselves to the commercial varieties, but 
should grow some seedlings of their own. It is a delightful 
occupation in itself, and it keeps alive one's interest in one's 
garden. Even the best collection of named sorts will become 
stale in time if there are no new ones coming on. But with a 
group of seedlings blooming for the first time each year your 
interest will be keenly awakened as the blooming season ap- 
proaches. This is a very different matter however from put- 



G8 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

ting your seedlings into commerce. People are proverbially 
apt to think their own geese are swans, and so it comes about 
that we are deluged now with new varieties which are being 
added to our already overburdened list at the rate of fifty or a 
hundred every year. I am often reminded of an old friend 
of mine years ago who was really a Rose fancier, but who grew 
Peonies too, and had raised a few seedlings. I saw him one 
summer just after the end of the Peony season, and he told me 
with great delight that his first seedling had come into bloom 
that year. ''What was it like?" I asked. "It was a single 
pink. It was very beautiful, ' ' he replied. Now in a batch of 
mixed seedlings there are always likely to be about a third 
single pinks and single whites. And while they are all in a 
sense "very beautiful" one ought to remember that there is no 
justification for putting a variety into commerce unless it is 
really distinct from anything we have had before or superior 
to any older variety that resembles it. Remembering this you 
will suppress most of your very beautiful single whites and 
pinks, unless, as may happen once in a long while, you get 
one that is so fine in color or quality as to warrant you in 
propagating it. An English firm of Peony growers has put 
out into commerce about one hundred named sorts of single 
pink Peonies. It is safe to say that not more than one tenth 
of these are really distinct and valuable. 

My final appeal to you is to use more intelligence and 
always more intelligence. Do not be satisfied with going to an 
exhibition and noting down the fine kinds you would like to 
add to your collection; but study the catalogues of Peony 
specialists so as to become acquainted with the extra early 
and the extra late kinds of Chinese Peonies ; and then see also 
what there is to be had among those varieties which bloom be- 
fore the Chinese Peonies have begun, — those lovely harbingers 
of Peony season which give you a foretaste of the joys that 
are to come later. And do not rest satisfied until you have 
six weeks of Peony bloom in your own garden. 



Diplomas of Membership 

The first diploma of membership in this Society was pub- 
lished in 1831. The design was a landscape view, w T ith growing 
flowers, and gathered fruits and vegetables, and horticultural 
implements, in the foreground, and a mansion and trees in the 
background. It was printed by Pendleton, Lithographer, 
Boston. (See Frontispiece on page 8.) 

The present elaborately engraved diploma which is sent 
to life members was adopted in 1841 and was designed and 
engraved by John R. Foster. The original plate was de- 
stroyed in the Boston fire of 1872 and re-engraved in 1913 
bv J. J. Wilcox. 




The seal of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society was 

adopted in 1841. 



G9 




Charles W. Jenks 
Who has been a member of the Society since 1865 



Member for 60 Years 

Charles W. Jenks of Bedford Joined the Society in 1865 

Mr. Charles W. Jenks of Bedford has been a member of the 
Massachusetts Horticultural Society longer than any other 
person. Mr. Jenks, who was born in 1848 on Mount Vernon 
St., Cambridge, joined the Society in 1865 at the age of 17. 
He has always been very much interested in wild flowers and 
formerly sent exhibits for the Saturday shows. Mr. Jenks' 
father was also a member of the Society. The late Senator 
Lodge was a classmate of Mr. Jenks, class of 1871. The 
statue of Gen. Hooper on the State House grounds now stands 
near the site of Mr. Jenks' old home. The State eventually 
took the land for the State House property. Mr. Jenks has 
served on the Children's Garden Committee, Wildflower Com- 
mittee and Library Committee of the Massachusetts Horticul- 
tural Society. Mr. Jenks is very much interested in botany 
and is a member of the New England Botanical Club as well 
as the American Fern Society. He has always had a handsome 
garden although during the last year or two he has not been 
able to do so much work in it. He specializes in the German 
Iris and grows many varieties. 

Since 1884 Mr. Jenks has been living in Bedford. He is 
interested in town affairs and has been town moderator for 
twenty years, has served on the Library Committee and 
various other committees and has done a great deal to help the 
town along. He was Tree Warden for a great many years 
and was superintendent of the moth work for several years 
when the brown tail moth first came here. 

The old home in Bedford was built by his grandfather. 
The house is well known by its well arranged wood pile which 
never seems to diminish. 



71 



Members for 50 Years or More 

The following have been members of the Massachusetts 
Horticultural Society for fifty years or more : 

1865 Charles W. Jenks, Bedford, Mass., 

1866 Walter S. Barnes, Brookline, Mass. 

1867 Frederic Amory, Boston, Mass. 

1870 Charles S. Sargent, Brookline, Mass. 

1871 Francis H. Appleton, Boston, Mass. 

1871 John Robinson, Salem, Mass. 

1872 Charles H. Hovej^ South Pasadena, Cal. 

1873 Charles H. Breck, Newton, Mass. 
1873 William T. Brigham, Honolulu, T. H. 
1873 Chauncy W. Chamberlain, Waban, Mass. 
1873 Clarence H. Denny, Boston, Mass. 

1873 John Lawrence, Groton, Mass. 

1874 John R. Newman, Winchester, Mass. 
1874 Rev. Wm. W. Newton, Pittsfield, Mass. 
1874 Eugene A. Snow, Allston, Mass. 



72 



Exhibitions and Lectures for 1925 

March 27-29. Exhibition of Spring Flowering Plants. Lec- 
tures on Spring Bulbs, by Mrs. Ethel Anson S. Peck- 
ham, New Rochelle, N. Y. 

June 6-7. Rhododendron, Azalea and Iris Exhibition. Lec- 
tures on Shrubs for the Home Garden, by Henry Hicks, 
Westbury, L. I. 

June 20-21. Peony Exhibition. Lectures on Peonies for the 
Home Garden, by George N. Smith, Wellesley Hills. 

June 27-28. Rose, Strawberry and Sweet Pea Exhibition. 
Lectures on the Growing of Roses, by Prof. Hugh 
Findlay, Columbia University. 

August 22-23. Gladiolus Exhibition. Lectures on the Culti- 
vation of the Gladiolus, by J. A. Kemp, Little Silver, N. J. 

September 12-13. Dahlia Exhibition. Lecture on the Culti- 
vation of the Dahlia, by Prof. C. H. Connors, New 
Brunswick, N. J., Saturday. Lecture on the Cultivation 
of Grapes, by Dr. Walter G. Kendall, of Atlantic, Sun- 
day. 

October 29-31 and November 1. Grand Exhibition of Fruits. 
Special lectures each day. 

November 6-8. Grand Autumn Exhibition. Lectures on 
House Plants, by Prof. Clark L. Thayer, Amherst, Mass. 

All the lectures will be held at 3 P. M. in the basement hall, 
and will be free. 

73 



Periodicals Currently Received, 1924 

Agricultural Gazette of Canada 

Agricultural Gazette of New South Wales 

Agricultural Index 

American Botanist 

American Dahlia Society. Bulletin 

American Fern Journal 

American Florist 

American Forests and Forest Life 

American Gladiolus Society. Official bulletin 

American Iris Society. Bulletin 

American Naturalist 

American Nut Journal 

American Pomologist 

Annals of Botany 

Arnold Arboretum. Bulletin of popular information 

Arnold Arboretum. Journal 

Brooklyn Botanic Garden. Leaflets 

Brooklyn Botanic Garden. Record 

Bryologist. 

Bulletin of Peony News 

California Garden. 

Canadian Entomologist 

Canadian Field-Naturalist 

Canadian Florist 

Canadian Horticulturist 

Le Chrysantheme 

Cornell Countryman 

Country Gentleman 

Country Life (New York) 

Curtis's Botanical Magazine 

Dahlia Society of New England. Bulletin 

Deutsche Obst-und Gemiisebau-Zeitung 

Ecology 

Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society. Journal 

Experiment Station Record 

Farm and Fireside 

Farm and Garden 

Farm and Home 

74 



PERIODICALS CURRENTLY RECEIVED 75 

Farm Journal 

Florists' Exchange 

Flower Grower 

Flowering Plants of South Africa 

For Better Delphiniums 

Forest Leaves 

Fruit Belt 

Fruit World of Australasia 

Garden 

Garden Club of America. Bulletin 

Garden Life 

Garden Magazine and Home Builder. 

Gardeners' Chronicle 

Gardeners' Chronicle (of America) 

Gardening (Chicago) 

Gardening Illustrated 

Gartenflora 

Gartenkunst 

Gartenschonheit 

Gartenwelt 

Geisenheimer Mittelungen Uber Obst-und Gartenbau 

Guide to Nature • 

L'Horticulteur Chalonnaise 

Horticulture 

L'Horticulture Francaise 

House and Garden 

House Beautiful 

International Institute of Agriculture, Rome 
Crop Report and Agricultural statistics 
International Review of Agricultural Economics 
International Review of the Science and Practice of Agriculture 

Japanese Horticultural Society. Journal 

Jardinage 

Journal d' Agriculture du Sud-ouest 

Journal d' Horticulture Suisse 

Journal of Agricultural Research 

Journal of Botany, British and Foreign 

Journal of Economic Entomology 

Journal of Forestry 

Journal of Pomology and Horticultural Science 

Landscape Architecture 

Linnean Society. Journal 

Lyon-horticole et Horticulture Nouvelle Reunis. 

Market Growers' Journal 

Minnesota Horticulturist 



76 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

Missouri Botanical Garden. Annals 

Missouri Botanical Garden. Bulletin 

Museu Nacional do Rio de Janeiro. Boletim 

Mycologia 

National Nurseryman 

National Pecan Exchange News 

*Nature Magazine 

New England Homestead 

New York Botanical Garden. Bulletin 

*New York Botanical Garden. Journal 

Le Nord Horticole 

Orchid Review 

Pennsylvania Horticultural Society. Bulletin 

Petit Jardin 

Pomologie Francaise 

Portland Roses and Flowers 

Progressive Farmer and Farm Woman 

Quarterly Journal of Forestry 

Reale Societa Toscana di Orticultura. Bulletino 

Revue des Eaux et Forets 

Revue Horticole 

Rhodora 

Royal Agricultural Society of England. Journal 

Royal Horticultural Society. Journal 

Rural New Yorker 

Seed World. 

Sociedad Rural Argentina. Anales 

Societe d'Horticulture, de Viticulture et d'Etudes Agronomiques 

du Puy-de-Dome. Bulletin 
Societe d'Horticulture d'Orleans et du Loiret. Bulletin 
Societe d'Horticulture et de Viticulture d'Epernay. Bulletin 
Societe Horticole Vigneronne et Forestiere de l'Aube. Bulletin 
Societe Nationale d'Horticulture de France. Journal 
South African Gardening and Country Life. 
Southern Florist and Nurseryman 
Special Crops 

Torrey Botanical Club. Bulletin 
Torreya 
Tree Talk 

* Tropical Agriculture 
Tropical Agriculturist 



PERIODICALS CURRENTLY RECEIVED 77 

*Weekly Florist 

Western Florist, Nurseryman and Seedsman 

*Wild Flower 

Wisconsin Horticulture 

* World Agriculture 

Zeitschrift fur Obst-wein-und Gartenbau 

Zeitschrift fur pflanzenkrankheiten und gallenkunde 



* Added in 1924. 



Library Accessions* 

New books added to the Library during the year 1924 in- 
clude the following: 

Adams, H. I. Wild flowers of the British Isles. 

Adams, H. S. Lilies. 

Ames, Oakes. An enumeration of the orchids of the United States 

and Canada. 
Andrews, Luman. Catalogue of the flowering plants and ferns of 

Springfield, Mass. 
Bailey, L. H. Manual of cultivated plants. 
Barron, Leonard, and others. Flower growing. 
Bishop, S. C. and Clarke, N. T. A scientific survey of Turner's Lake, 

Isle-au-Haut, Maine. 
Black's gardening dictionary. Edited by E. T. Ellis. 
Brewster, Mrs. K. L. The little garden for little money. 
Burrage, A. C. A catalogue of the orchid plants in the collection of 

Albert C. Burrage, at Orchidvale, Beverly Farms. 
List of books and other works relating to orchids in the library 

of Albert C. Burrage. 

Notes on native New England orchids. 

Buttrick, P. L. Connecticut's state flower, the mountain laurel. 

Byne, M. S. and Arthur. Spanish gardens and patios. 

Chittenden, F. J. The garden doctor. 

Chun, W. Y. Chinese economic trees. 

Clarke, G. R. Soil acidity. (Oxford forestry memoirs.) 

Cloud, K. M. P. Practical flower gardening. 

Clute, W. N. American plant names. 

Coit, J. E. and J. D. Batchelor. Peony reports. (Cornell bulletins.) 

Conard, H. S. and Henri Hus. Water lilies. 

Coulter, J. M. Fundamentals of plant-breeding. 

Coventry, B. 0. Wild flowers of Kashmir, Series 1. 

Cox, E. H. M. Rhododendrons for amateurs. 

Dillistone, George. The planning and planting of little gardens. 

Dillon, J. L. The blossom circle of the year in southern gardens. 

Driscoll, Louise. Garden grace. 

Durand, Herbert. Taming the wildings. 

Dyke, W. The A. B. C. of tomato culture under glass. 

Dykes, W. R. A handbook of garden irises. 



* Continuations have not been included. 

78 



LIBRARY ACCESSIONS 79 

Farlow, J. W. Memoir of Harold Clarence Ernst. 
Farrer, Reginald. Alpines and bog plants. 

The English rock garden. 

Farrington, E. I. The backyard garden. 

The country home month by month. 

Felt, E. P. Manual of tree and shrub insects. 

Fernald, H. T. Applied entomology. 

Findlay, Hugh. House plants. 

Florin, Rudolph. Korsbarstradens pollinering. (Pollination of 

cherries. ) 
Foley, P. J. The greenhouse beautiful. 
Fraser, Samuel. American fruits. 
Gehrs, J. H. Soils and crops. 

Gilbert- Carter, Humphrey. Descriptive labels for botanic gardens. 
Gof£, E. S. The principles of plant culture, 8th ed. 
Hampden, Mary. Bulb gardening. 

Hawkins, P. H. The trees and shrubs of Yellowstone National Park. 
Henslow, T. G. W. Garden construction. 
Hervey, A. B. Wayside flowers and ferns. 
Hill, A. L. Garden portraits. 

Holland, L. B. The garden bluebook ... of the perennial garden. 
Hottes, A. C. A little book of climbing plants. 
House, H. D. Annotated list of the ferns and flowering plants of 

New York state. 
Hutcheson, M. B. The spirit of the garden. 
(Les) iris cultives; actes et comptes rendus de la 1-er Conference 

internationale des iris, Paris, 1923. 
Jenkins, E. H. The rock garden. 

Jepson, W. L. A flora of the economic plants of California. 
Kains, M. G. Making horticulture pay. 
Kelley, A. P. Soil acidity, an ecological factor. 
Knight, A. E. and Step, Edward. Hutchinson's popular botany. 
Lindsay, T. S. Plant names. 
Linton, E. F. Flora of Bournemouth. 
Linton, W. R. Flora of Derbyshire. 
Lomas, C. R. Garden whimseys. 
Long, H. C. and Percival, John. Common weeds of the farm and 

garden. 
Lyman, Mrs. F. V. F. A little book to garden lovers. 
McCormick, Mrs. H. H. Landscape art, past and present. 
McFarland, J. H. Roses and how to grow them. 
Mackenzie, J. S. E. British orchids. 
Mcintosh, R. The hyacinth. 

Martineau, Mrs. Alice. The secrets of many gardens. 
Millais, J. G. Rhododendrons and the various hybrids, second series. 



80 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

Moore, F. F. A garden of peace, a medley in quietude. 

Murphy, D. W. Drainage engineering. 

Nicholson, K. S. Historic American trees. 

Norton, J. B. S. Seven thousand dahlias in cultivation. 

Nutting, Wallace. Massachusetts beautiful. 

Oliver, G. W. and Hottes, A. C. Plant culture, 4th ed. 

Olmsted, F. L. Forty years of landscape architecture. Volume 1 : 

Early years and experiences. 
Ortloff, H. S. A garden bluebook of annuals and biennials. 
Parsons, Samuel. Landscape gardening studies. 
Pease, A. S. Vascular flora of Coos county, N. H. 
Pellett, F. C. American honey plants. 
Piper, C. V. Forage plants, revised ed. 
Pratt, Anne. Wild flowers. 2 vols. 

Robinson, William. The English flower garden, 13th ed. 
Rus, a register of the rural leadership in the United States and 

Canada. 
Simpson, C. T. In lower Florida wilds. 
Skinner, C. M. Myths and legends of flowers, trees, fruits and 

plants. 
Skinner, M. P. The Yellowstone nature book. 
Stebbins, Fannie. Insect galls of Springfield, Mass. 
Steele, Fletcher. Design in the little garden. 
Tannoek, David. Manual of gardening in New Zealand. 

Potato growing in New Zealand. 

Taubenhaus, J. J. and Mally, F. W. The culture and diseases of the 

onion. 
Thomas, G. C, Jr. Roses for all American climates. 
Thomas, H. H. Complete amateur gardener. 

Rock gardening for amateurs. 

Thomas, H. H. and Easlea, Walter. The rose book, 4th ed. 

Thompson, H. S. Alpine plants of Europe. 

Tinley, G. F., Humphreys, Thomas and Irving, William. Colour 

planning of the garden. 
Vondel, J. L. The glorious gladiolus. 
Ward, F. K. Romance of plant hunting. 

Warner, M. F. The earliest American book on kitchen gardening. 
Weed, C. M. Wild flower families. 
Who's who in America, 1924-25. 

Wickson, E. J. The California vegetables in garden and field. 
Wilder, Mrs. L. B. Adventures in my garden and rock garden. 

My garden. 

Wright, Mrs. M. 0. The garden of a commuter's wife. 
Wright, Richardson. The practical book of outdoor flowers. 



Contributions to the Society 

The following special contributions to the Massachusetts 
Horticultural Society are announced for 1925 and future 
years : 

By the American Peony Society, a silver medal for Peonies, 
offered at the Peony Exhibition. 

By Albert C. Burrage, seven $100 silver cups, to be com- 
peted for at the seven exhibitions of 1925, and one $50 silver 
cup offered for the best garden made by a member of the 
Society under 18 years of age. 

By Albert C. Burrage, a $100 silver cup, for the best colony 
of Lobelia cardinalis. 

By Miss Marian Roby Case, $100 for prizes for products of 
Children's Gardens. 

By Miss Marian Roby Case, $50 : $25 for the improvement of 
the Blueberry and $25 for the Huckleberry in Massachusetts. 

By Mrs. S. V. R. Crosby, $100 for the library. 

By William B. H. Dowse, a silver cup, to the exhibitor mak- 
ing the best showing of vegetables during the year. 

By Mrs. Homer Gage, $500 in cash, to be used as the Trustees 
may desire. It is expected that this money will be used for 
the improvement of the library. 

By Mrs. Homer Gage, $50, for a collection of new Irises. 

By Miss Cornelia Horsford, $100, for Delphiniums, offered 
at the Iris Exhibition and the Dahlia Exhibition. 

By the Horticultural Society of New York, $100 to be used 
for a silver cup at the Grand Autumn Exhibition. 

By the Lenox Garden Club, $50, for a Perennial Border, 
offered at the Iris Exhibition. 

By George N. Smith, $10, offered for the best Peony grown 
by an amateur, exhibited at the Peony Exhibition. 

By Mrs. Bayard Thayer, $800, for Shrubs in Gardens. 



81 




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Dahlias and Their Cultivation* 

BY MARSHALL A. HOWE 

Assistant Director of The New York Botanical Garden 

The Dahlia is an ornamental plant that during the past few 
years has undergone a marvelous development, and has made 
remarkable strides in the winning of popular favor. In our 
Atlantic seaboard states at least and on our Pacific Coast, the 
Dahlia has already arrived. In the autumn and in late 
summer it adorns the farmyard and the garden of the villager 
as well as the spacious country estate of the multi-millionaire. 
When you hear some one say that he does not care much for 
Dahlias, you generally find on inquiry that he does not know 
what modern Dahlias are like. To him the word Dahlia com- 
monly calls to mind the rather small, stiff, formal, ball-shaped 
flowers, such as his mother or grandmother used to raise, 
thirty, forty or fifty years ago. These are still raised and they 
are preferred by some but there are now whole groups and 
classes of Dahlias that are so very different from the old- 
fashioned kind that many people do not recognize them as 
Dahlias at all. 

The present rapidly increasing popularity of Dahlias is 
apparently due to the ease with which they may be grown, to 
the wondrous beauty and variety of their flowers, both as to 
form and color, and to the fact that, under favorable condi- 
tions, the earlier and freer-flowering varieties may be de- 
pended upon to furnish flowers for a period of about three 
months, beginning, perhaps, by the middle of July and con- 
tinuing until the arrival of the killing frosts in October and 
November. They are, however, essentially autumn-flowering 
plants and are at their best after the days and nights get cool, 
in September and October. The glories of Daffodils, Tulips, 
Peonies, Irises, Rhododendrons, and Gladioli are most striking 
and are not at all to be despised, but they are short-lived as 
compared with those of Dahlias. 



* The main text of an illustrated lecture, given before the Massachusetts Horti- 
cultural Society on September 13, 1924, and repeated on the following day. 

83 



84 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

The chief failings of Dahlias, if failings they are, would 
seem to be their lack of perfume and. the fact that the roots in 
our latitude must ordinarily be brought in for the winter and 
put out again in the spring. In this connection it may be re- 
marked that varieties whose flowers sometimes at least exhale 
an agreeable odor have appeared upon the market, and that in 
our southern states and on our Pacific Coast it is not unusual 
for growers to leave the roots in the ground through the win- 
ter, lifting them and separating them just before planting 
time in the spring. 

That there are many varieties of Dahlias now in cultivation 
in the United States is manifest from the catalogues of the 
larger commercial growers and is manifest also to any one who 
visits the Dahlia shows held each autumn in Boston, New York, 
San Francisco, New Haven, Trenton, and other centers of 
Dahlia interest. Professor Norton, of Maryland, is compiling 
a card index to all the published names of Dahlia varieties — 
an index which already has, I understand, more than ten 
thousand entries. He has published this year (1924) a book- 
let entitled "Seven Thousand Dahlias in Cultivation." Sup- 
plementary lists of newer varieties and omissions are carrying 
the "Seven Thousand" well on the way to eight thousand. 
Some of these are distinguished, it is true, only by careful 
comparison, yet the fact remains that several thousand per- 
fectly distinct varieties are now in cultivation. Most of these 
are supposed to be descendants of a few plants that were 
grown in the Royal Gardens of Madrid about one hundred 
and thirty-four years ago from seeds that were sent there in 
1789 from Mexico, the native home of most of the species of 
the Dahlia. The Abbe Cavanilles, Director of the Royal Gar- 
dens of Madrid, named the new plant "Dahlia" in honor of 
Andreas Dahl, a well-known Swedish botanist of that period. 
The Dahlias, as they grow wild in the mountains of Mexico, 
occur with single or rarely semi-double flowers, mostly in 
various shades of red or pink. The large double flowers and 
the marvelous colors and combination of colors seen in the 
Dahlias of today are modern developments. But a blue 
Dahlia, like a blue Rose, is something for the future, if it is 
ever attained. The nearest that we now come to it is a violet- 
purple. 



DAHLIAS AND THEIR CULTIVATION 85 

Dahlias were introduced into the ornamental gardens of the 
United States about one hundred years ago, but their great 
development as to form, size, and color and as to popularity 
has been during the last twenty years. 

The Dahlia belongs to the family known to botanists as the 
Compositae or more recently as the Carduaceae. It is a char- 
acteristic of this family that what is popularly called a 
"flower" is in reality, like the Sunflower, a flower-cluster or 
head, made up of numerous closely aggregated flowers or 
florets, the corollas of which are often developed in two or 
more ways. In the so-called single Dahlias, a few outer 
flowers of the cluster have broad, flat, conspicuous, expanded 
corollas, know as the rays, popularly but not botanically the 
"petals," while the inner or disc flowers, including most of 
the flowers of the cluster, have small, inconspicuous, tubular 
corollas. But in our talk today we shall continue to use the 
word "flower" in its popular sense, meaning what botanists 
would call a "head" or "flower-cluster." 

Growers and exhibitors of Dahlias recognize several differ- 
ent classes or groups, based on the form and other characters 
of the flower or head. The extremes of form are very pro- 
nounced and it is usually easy to say into what class a flower 
is to be placed, but here, as elsewhere in nature, and more 
especially where nature has been interfered with by man, the 
lines of separation are not always hard and fast, and it some- 
times happens that a variety may be found under two and 
sometimes three different headings in catalogues of different 
dealers. As defined by the American Dahlia Society, seven 
principal classes of Dahlias are recognized, but two of them 
are subdivided and the subdivisions are given equal rank with 
the main division in most of the catalogues, so we may as 
well say that there are ten classes — the Single, the Collarette, 
the Duplex, the Peony-flowered, the Cactus, the Hybrid Cac- 
tus, the Decorative, the Show, the Hybrid Show, and the 
Pompon. 

1. In the class known as the Single Dahlias, we have open- 
centered flowers, with eight to twelve, usually eight, rays in 
a single circles or series. Examples, Twentieth Century and 
Newport Wonder. 

2. In the Collarette class, we have flowers of the single type, 
with not more than nine large floral rays, but with apparently 



86 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

a circle of smaller, narrower, often differently colored rays, 
standing in front of or at the base of the larger rays and 
forming a sort of collar between them and the open center. 
(In reality, the inner are outgrowths of the outer and are parts 
of them.) Examples, Madame Poirier and San Mateo Star. 

3. In the Duplex class, we find semi-double flowers, with 
more than twelve rays in more than one circle, the rays long 
and flat or broad and rounded, not noticeably curled. The 
class intergrades with the Singles on the one hand and the 
Peony-flowered group on the other. It is rather rarely recog- 
nized by the makers of catalogues. Examples, Weber and 
Madame J. Coissard. 

4. In the Peony -flowered class, we have semi-double flowers, 
with open centers, the inner floral rays being usually curled 
or twisted. Examples, Geisha, Laura Barnes and Caecilia. 

5. In the Cactus class, we find flowers that are fully double, 
at least in the early part of the season or in all except the 
latest stages of development of the individual flower. In the 
true or fluted type, the rays are long, narrow, straight, in- 
curved or twisted, with sharp or fluted points and with mar- 
gins rolled backward or outward, forming in the outer florets 
a more or less perfect tube for more than half the length of 
the ray. Examples, Countess of Lonsdale, Pierrot, and F. W. 
Fellowes. 

6. In the Hybrid Cactus group, we find rays that are short 
and broad as compared with those of the true Cactus, the 
margins of the rays are only slightly rolled backward, and the 
tubes of the florets are less than half the length of the ray. 
Examples, Kalif, Lady Helen, and Gladys Sherwood. The 
word "hybrid" in such terms as Hybrid Cactus has no special 
reference to their mode of origin. Virtually all of the culti- 
vated Dahlias are hybrids or crosses of native species or at 
least of other garden varieties. The expression Hybrid Cactus 
simply means that the flower is intermediate in character 
between the true Cactus type and the Decorative type or per- 
haps the Peony-flowered type. 

7. In the Decorative class, we have double flowers, normally 
full to the center and flat rather than ball-shaped, with broad, 
flat rays, the margins of the outer rays plane or only slightly 
recurved. Examples, Beatrice Slocombe, Snowdrift, and 
Judge Marean. 



DAHLIAS AND THEIR CULTIVATION 87 

8. In the Show class, we find fully double flowers that are 
globular rather than flat and rays that are quilled or cup- 
shaped by the folding inward of their margins. Examples, 
Dreer's White, A. D. Livoni, W. W. Rawson, and King of 
Shows. 

9. In the Hybrid Show group, we have flowers that are 
intermediate in character between the Shows and the Decora- 
tives. They are more loosely built than the Shows, the rays 
are broader and less cupped or quilled. Examples, Arthur 
Kelsey and D. M. Moore. 

10. In the Pompon class, we have flowers of the same gen- 
eral character as in the Shows and Hybrid Shows, but they are 
smaller — are less than two inches in diameter, according to 
the rules of the American Dahlia Society. Examples, Belle of 
Springfield, Nerissa and. Eileene. 

The so-called Show Dahlias got that name from their popu- 
larity, especially in England, fifty or seventy-five years ago, 
when they were thought to be the only form that was really 
worthy of exhibition. The Cactus Dahlias got that name be- 
cause the scarlet or crimson flowers of the first known variety 
of that type suggested to some one in England a resemblance 
to the flowers of a member of the Cactus family that was then 
popular in the greenhouses of that country. As a commentary 
on modern Dahlia nomenclature, it may be remarked that 
Dahlia Juarezii, the original "Cactus Dahlia," would not now 
qualify as a "true Cactus," but would be placed in the 
' ' Hybrid Cactus ' ' group. 

In the matter of soil for growing Dahlias successfully it has 
been found that a light loam, with good drainage, is most 
favorable. They commonly do better on a slope than on level 
land. Dahlias need plenty of water after they begin to blos- 
som, but like Roses and Peonies, they seem to resent standing 
in places where their feet are continuously wet. A very rich 
soil sometimes gives a rank growth of stalks and foliage, with 
few flowers, but generally speaking, there is little danger of 
making the soil too rich. As a fertilizer, sheep manure and 
bone meal are especially recommended by many Dahlia 
growers, but one can get the same chemical elements of plant 
food from other manures and fertilizers, usually more 
cheaply and more directly. To get the best results, all of these 
manures and fertilizers should be well mixed with the soil and 



88 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

if one is planting only a few and can take the time and trouble 
it is well to put most of it about a foot away from the root at 
the time of planting. Manuring "in the hill" is often in- 
jurious. If the soil is tolerably good the plant will make a 
better start without such manuring. The plant seems to prefer 
to have most of its food later in life and to have it administered 
from the surface of the soil. Applications of liquid manure, a 
surface mulch of manure, or chemical fertilizers applied spar- 
ingly and raked into the soil, all after the plants reach flower- 
ing size, with artificial watering, if necessary, induce a rapid 
growth and assist in the formation of large handsome flowers. 
But the roots of strongly forced plants sometimes give poor 
results the following season and roots of moderately fed field- 
grown plants are to be preferred. 

A heavy, clayey soil that is inclined to bake down hard in 
the summer is often much improved by dumping on sand or 
even coal ashes to the depth of three or six inches and plough- 
ing or spading it under and mixing it in. Neither sand nor 
coal ashes adds much to the plant food in the soil but they 
may improve the mechanical texture, making the soil more 
porous, and, strange as it may seem, enabling it to hold 
moisture longer. It has been found by experiment that most 
of the higher plants breathe through their roots as well as 
through their leaves. In the case of Dahlias, a hard compacted 
soil seems to be especially unfavorable, doubtless on account 
of a smothering of the roots. Of course, if ashes or sand is 
added, one should increase the fertilizer or plant food accord- 
ingly. If one's soil is poor and if stable manures are not 
obtainable, it is a good plan to buy chemical fertilizers. If 
one does this, it is much more economical and satisfactory to 
get the three really important elements rather than to buy the 
ready-made fertilizer mixtures that contain a lot of inert sub- 
stances that are of no particular use. The three important 
things are Acid Phosphate, Muriate of Potash, and Nitrate of 
Soda. Of the Acid Phosphate and Muriate of Potash, one may 
use eight pounds of each to a square rod, turning it under by 
ploughing or spading. The Nitrate of Soda may be spread 
on the surface and raked into the soil after the plants begin 
to blossom, using two pounds to a square rod. Nitrate of Soda 
is very powerful and should be used with caution and re- 



DAHLIAS AND THEIR CULTIVATION 89 

straint, if at all, and should not be placed within a few inches 
of the plant itself. 

Dahlias, as a rule, do best in a sunny location, though some 
of the varieties welcome a little shade in the middle of the day. 
The vicinity of trees, shrubs, and woody vines is to be avoided 
not so much, perhaps, on account of the shade as on account of 
the heavy drain that such strong-growing organisms always 
make on the food and water content of the adjacent soil. 

As to the best time for planting, there are differences of 
opinion. Something of course depends on one's location and 
the length of the growing season. In the interior and among 
the mountains, where frosts are expected in September, it is 
well to plant as early in May as is consistent with safety from 
freezing or even to start the roots under glass. But along the 
seaboard of New York, New Jersey, and Connecticut, where 
Dahlias often bloom into November, later planting is now com- 
monly believed to give the best general results. In such locali- 
ties, the first week in June is perhaps the most popular date 
for planting, though growers for the cut-flower market in 
New York often prefer to plant later, continuing up to the 
middle of July. By late planting one of course does not get 
flowers so soon, but is likely to get better flowers when they 
do come. 

For the growing of Dahlias, amateurs commonly use either 
tuberous roots or seeds, although professionals or the more 
experienced amateurs make use also of green plants grown 
from cuttings. Unless you have a greenhouse and can root 
the cuttings in March or April, it is hardly worth while to 
bother with them. Dahlia roots are often spoken of as tubers 
or bulbs, but, strictly speaking, they are neither. They are 
tuberous roots and we shall refer to them as such. Late in 
April or early in May, the Dahlia roots should be overhauled. 
Those that look all right and are beginning to show eyes or 
sprouts may perhaps be returned to the places of storage 
until the best time for planting in your locality arrives. The 
root-clumps that are of doubtful vitality should be covered 
with moist earth or sand and kept in a well-lighted, moderately 
warm place, at least until you are convinced as to whether 
they are alive or not. 

When the eyes are well started, you can then divide the 
clump in such a way that each division has at least one good 



90 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

eye. Beginners sometimes make the mistake of planting a 
whole clump without division, but this is not only a wicked 
waste of roots, but the results are not so good as when the 
clump is properly divided. One shoot is all that is needed for 
growing and that may be obtained as well from a single root 
as from a whole cluster of roots. The beginner should remem- 
ber that no shoot ever grows from the tuberous root itself. 
All of the eyes are on the crown of the clump, the crown being 
essentially the base of last year's stalk. 

A modern Dahlia is the result of a great many crosses or 
hybridizations and when one plants a seed one never knows 
just what one is going to get except that it is going to be a 
Dahlia and not a Sunflower or a Cabbage. The flower of a 
plant grown from a seed may show more or less resemblance to 
the flower of the plant from which the seed was taken, it may 
strike back to one of its numerous ancestors, or it may repre- 
sent a new blend of the qualities of the mother plant with 
those of some other variety that stood near it in the field. 
The new varieties originate from the planting of seeds. When, 
however, you plant a root or set out a green plant that has 
come from a slip, you are, in a way, continuing an individual 
plant from one season into the next. If this is kept up indefi- 
nitely, it is a sort of immortality for a single individual. Ex- 
cept for slight variations due to changes of soil or of climate 
or greater ones due to disease, the flowers under such condi- 
tions remain true to type. 

If one is planting only a few and wants to do it right, it is 
well to dig a hole a foot or two deep and see to it that the future 
plant has good, fertile soil underneath it. Lay the root or 
division on its side, with the eye or sprout upwards, about 
six inches below the general surface, and cover at first with 
about two inches of soil, later drawing in more soil about the 
plant as it grows, leaving the surface finally level or a bit con- 
cave for efficiency in future watering. Don 't let more than one 
or two shoots grow, though it is sometimes prudent to leave 
more than that until danger from cutworms and stem-borers 
is passed. If the variety is a valuable one and if there is a 
surplus of shoots, one may remove them carefully at the 
point of origin after three or four pairs of leaves have devel- 
oped and may make separate plants of them, either by trans- 
planting to a pot or by setting them in any desired position, 



DAHLIAS AND THEIR CULTIVATION 91 

taking care to give them plenty of water and shade for a few 
days. A good general working rule is to plant three feet 
apart, each way, though vigorous, well-nourished plants do 
better and are more approachable if the rows are four feet 
apart. 

Hot, dry weather is perhaps the chief enemy of the Dahlia 
and for that reason they commonly do better near the seacoast 
than in the interior of our country. Dahlias ordinarily re- 
quire little artificial watering until they have reached flower- 
ing size and then they commonly need plenty of it. It is much 
better to soak the ground twice a week to a depth of a foot 
or two than to water a little every day. It is an excellent 
rule to be free with the hoe in the early part of the season and 
to be free with water after the plants begin to blossom. 

Most people who raise only a few Dahlias tie them up to 
stakes to lessen possible injuries from wind and rain. If this 
is to be done, it is well to drive the stake just before planting. 
Some varieties are naturally short and others are just as 
naturally tall. For the taller kinds a standard size of stake 
is six feet long and one and one-quarter inches square. If the 
stakes are kept painted and if the bottoms are dipped in 
creosote oil, they will last for many years. 

Some Dahlia-growers prefer to keep their plants low and 
shrubby by snipping off the top of the young stem above the 
second pair of leaves. Instead of one main trunk we then 
usually have four lateral branches that take its place. This 
beheading operation retards the opening of the first flowers 
by about two weeks. The crown bud — the bud that terminates 
the main stem or a main branch — commonly makes the best 
flower and its size and beauty are enhanced if the lateral buds 
coming from the bases of the three, four, or five pairs of leaves 
below it are removed about as soon as they start. This allows 
the whole strength of the main stem or main branch to go to 
the perfection of the one flower. Whether you should practice 
disbudding or not is largely a matter of taste. It all depends 
upon whether you want many and smaller flowers or fewer, 
larger, and, as most people think, handsomer flowers. In 
the early part of the season most of us dislike to disbud, 
feeling that in so doing we are sacrificing many future flowers, 
but as the season advances and the day of the first frost ap- 
proaches, we do it with a clearer conscience, feeling that the 



92 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL. SOCIETY 

buds we are removing would be likely to be caught by the 
frost before they would have a chance to open. Withered 
flowers should be removed, both to improve the appearance of 
the plant and to conserve the vigor of the plant by removing 
the necessity of ripening seeds, that is, unless you wish to 
ripen seeds and save them for next year's planting. 

But, as I have already said, you do not know what you are 
going to get when you plant a Dahlia seed except that it is 
going to be a Dahlia, and unless you have plenty of ground, 
a taste for experimentation, or an overwhelming desire to 
originate a new variety of commanding merit, it is better to 
stick to the tuberous roots or to green plants grown from 
slips. If, however, you are interested in the fascinating game 
of producing new varieties of Dahlias, don't think you have 
a world-beater and don't put it on the market until you have 
sent roots of it to the Trial Grounds of the American Dahlia 
Society at Storrs, Conn., or College Park, Maryland, until 
representatives of the American Dahlia Society have tested it 
out, have compared its flowers with those of related varieties, 
have rated it, and have perhaps given the new variety a 
"certificate of merit." Although the new varieties of the 
last five or ten years have added much to the increasing popu- 
larity of Dahlias, the fact remains that too many new ones, 
often no better than cheaper pre-existing varieties, are now 
being offered for sale. 

Dahlias are easily grown, but it must be admitted that 
they have their diseases, like other organisms. Most import- 
ant among these is a mysterious trouble known as the stunt or 
dwarf disease, which may not be really different from what is 
sometimes known as the "mosaic" disease. The plant does 
not develop normally, it remains short or becomes abnormally 
bushy, and the flowers are few, poorly formed, and under- 
sized. Investigation of the roots often shows small brownish 
cracks in the skin of the crown, the necks of the roots, or the 
roots themselves. The cause of this trouble is not certainly 
known, but, whatever the cause, it is handed down from one 
season to the next in the tuberous roots and also a little less 
often in plants that are grown from slips taken from dis- 
eased plants. Roots from plants suspected of disease should 
never be planted unless one wants to perform a scientific ex- 



DAHLIAS AND THEIR CULTIVATION 93 

periment, and in that case do not plant them near your 
healthy stock, for the trouble seems to be contagious. 

From certain experiments that have been made and from 
what is known of similar diseases in other plants, it seems 
probable that the disease is carried from sick plants to healthy 
ones by small sucking insects such as plant lice and leaf- 
hoppers. The common leafhopper, which is sometimes called 
the white fly, though different from the true white fly of the 
greenhouses, is especially the object of suspicion. The adults 
are about one-eighth of an inch long and are yellowish white 
or greenish white. When newly hatched, they are much 
smaller, have no wings, and are usually found close to the 
veins on the under sides of the leaves. As they feed by push- 
ing their little bills through the skin of the leaf into the juicy 
interior, they cannot be killed by stomach poisons spread on 
the surface of the leaf. The only way to get them is by con- 
tact poisons, such as the various nicotine-sulphate prepara- 
tions, and these are of no use unless they actually hit the in- 
sect. 

If the leaves are sprayed with Black Leaf 40, X-L All, or 
some other nicotine-sulphate preparation once a week, begin- 
ning about June 25 and continuing until September 1, and 
giving special attention to the lower surfaces of the leaves, 
the little pests and probably also the spread of the disease may 
be held in check. But when you feel confident that a plant is 
diseased, pull it out and burn it. Don't coddle it along, with 
the usually vain hope that its progeny of another season may 
be stronger. The solution of the mosaic disease problem seems 
to be to get healthy stock and to keep it healthy by suppressing 
the small sucking insects. 

An usually less serious enemy of the Dahlia is the stem-borer, 
a worm about an inch long that, when smaller, enters the stalk 
from the outside and eats the interior of the stem. Its pres- 
ence is usually betrayed by the wilting of the upper part of the 
stem. The most direct and practical relief is to fish out the 
worm with a slender wire, hooked at the end. One can usually 
do this without serious injury to the plant by reaming out the 
hole by which the worm entered or by cutting off the top of the 
stem, thus making a suitable opening through which one may 
introduce the slender flexible wire. If one has only a few 
plants and is willing to take the necessary trouble, one may 



94 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

usually protect them from both cutworms and stem-borers by 
surrounding the base of the young plant with a cuff of tarred 
paper, more or less anointed with some sort of "tangle-foot." 
Some enthusiasts suppress the borers by locating them in the 
evening by the aid of a strong electric flashlight held behind 
the stem and then impaling them in situ with a hatpin. 

In the late autumn, very 'soon after the plants are killed 
by frost, the roots should be carefully lifted and stored away 
for the winter. If they are left long in the ground there is not 
only the danger of a real freeze that might damage the roots, 
but there is also a danger of a warm spell of weather that 
might start new shoots and thus draw out nourishment that 
you would rather have remain in the roots for use the next 
spring. The beginner should remember that a root with a 
broken neck is commonly useless and that, accordingly, much 
care should be used in lifting the clump. Sometimes two men 
working together, putting in their spades or spading forks 
on opposite sides of the clump and lifting together, can oper- 
ate with less damage to the roots than one man working alone. 
Cuts and bruises are to be avoided, as they give rot-producing 
fungi a better chance for attack. Any cuts should be covered 
with powdered sulphur. It is desirable to let the lifted 
roots dry off in the sunshine for two or three hours to remove 
any excess of sap or moisture from the pith or hollow of the 
stump, as this fluid, if left, might prove a culture medium for 
the spores of moulds or other fungi. Many Dahlia experts, in 
packing away their clumps of roots, turn the stump down- 
ward, so that any excess moisture may drain out. As a place 
for storing roots, any cellar must be tried out before it is quite 
safe to say just how it will work. If one has a special vege- 
table cellar where the temperature can be regulated and can be 
kept a few degrees above freezing most of the time without 
ever dropping to the freezing point and where potatoes and 
apples keep well, Dahlia roots also, as a rule, may be kept 
without any special attention as to covering. But the air in 
an ordinary furnace-heated cellar or basement is too hot and 
too dry for the proper preservation of Dahlia roots unless they 
are covered in some way. 

The ideal covering is sifted sand. This rattles down into all 
the cavities among the roots and at the same time there are 
minute air-spaces among the grains of sand, so that the roots 



DAHLIAS AND THEIR CULTIVATION 95 

are not altogether smothered. If sand is not easily obtainable, 
ordinary soil, preferably sandy soil, may be used, or sifted coal 
ashes commonly do very well. From ashes the roots sometimes 
come out in the spring more or less shrivelled, while from sand 
they usually come out as firm and plump as when they were 
packed away. One may often get good results by wrapping 
the clumps in newspapers and then storing them away in boxes 
and barrels. 

One should strike the happy medium between too much 
covering and too little and just what that happy medium is, 
may best be determined by experience with one's own cellar. 
The boxes or barrels containing the roots should be placed as 
far away from the furnace as is consistent with safety from 
freezing. Moulding and rotting of the crown is often pre- 
vented by filling the hollow of the stump with sulphur or 
at least sprinkling all the cut surface of the stump with sul- 
phur. Many people shorten the stump after digging by cutting 
it off again close to the crown. 

Dahlia roots of the numerous varieties are selling at the 
present time at prices ranging all the way from fifteen cents 
to fifty dollars a root. But one can make an excellent selection 
at prices ranging from fifteen cents to a dollar. The older, 
more widely distributed varieties are naturally the cheaper. 
The fact that a variety is an old one is in itself an indication 
that it has some virtues, as in the case of an old book that is 
still sold. It is an indication also that the variety is resistant 
to disease and that the roots winter well. 

Among the older, cheaper, Peony-flowered varieties may 
be mentioned Geisha, scarlet and gold ; Madonna, white ; and 
Cream King, cream-colored. Of the newer Peony-flowered 
Dahlias, we may mention Shantung, red and gold ; Virginia 
Harsh, white, flushed with rose ; Pearl Ruggles, carmine- 
rose ; and Uncle Sam, orange-buff, one of the largest-flowered 
varieties grown. 

Old, cheap, and excellent varieties of the Cactus and Hy- 
brid Cactus classes are Countess of Lonsdale, which is 
salmon-pink and a very free bloomer ; Standard Bearer, scar- 
let ; Sherlock, orange ; Pierrot, amber with whitish tips ; 
F. W. Fellowes, orange ; Nibelungenhort, old rose ; Marguer- 
ite Bouchon, pink and white ; Kalif, scarlet ; George Walters, 
salmon-pink ; Mrs. Warnaar, white or apple-blossom pink ; 



96 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

Attraction, lavender-rose; Tom Lundy, carmine-red ; and 
Helen Durnbaugh, blush-pink. 

Of the newer and somewhat higher-priced varieties of the 
Cactus and Hybrid Cactus classes, without mentioning the 
promising novelties of the present season, we might name 
Gladys Sherwood, large and pure white; Elsie Daniels and 
Harry Sheldon, Jr., both white, flushed with mauve ; Francis 
Lobdell, white and mallow-pink; Ambassador, yellow and 
buff; Mariposa, pink, flushed violet; Jean Chazot, golden- 
bronze; Josephine Mendillo, scarlet; California Beauty, 
orange; Sunny South, yellow; Siskiyou, lavender-pink, the 
"largest flower" of the Boston Show (1924) ; Lady Helen, 
pink and cream, often a prize-winner in its class; Dorothy 
Durnbaugh, pink; Mrs. Ethel P. T. Smith, a light cream- 
yellow; The U. S. A., deep orange; and Edith Slocombe, a 
beautiful garnet-purple. 

Of the Decorative type some of the excellent, older, well- 
established, cheaper varieties are Mina Burgle, dark scarlet; 
King of the Autumn, buff-yellow or terra-cotta ; Souvenir de 
Gustave Doazon, red; Hortulanus Fiet, shrimp-pink; and 
Jeanne Charmet, lilac-pink and white. 

Of the newer and somewhat higher-priced Decoratives, 
without, however, mentioning any of the fine novelties of the 
present season, we might name Snowdrift, pure white; Ben 
Wilson, red and gold ; President Wilson, carmine with white 
tips ; Judge Marean, salmon-pink, orange, and gold, a pro- 
fuse and early bloomer; Jersey's Beauty, "a true pink;" 
Jersey's Jewel, mallow-pink; Myra Valentine, golden-bronze 
and salmon-pink ; El Dorado, golden-yellow ; Earle Williams, 
crimson and white; Mrs. Carl Salbach, lavender-pink; The 
Grizzly, dark velvety maroon; The Millionaire, a faint lav- 
ender-pink, a variety that often wins prizes for size of 
flower; Insulinde, orange, gold, and brown, sometimes a 
prize-winner for "the most artistic Dahlia;" Mrs. I de Ver 
Warner, a deep mauve-pink; Rosa Nell, lavender-pink; 
Cambria, pink and white ; Le Toreador, flaming red ; Beatrice 
Slocombe, orange and gold; Bonnie Brae, rose and cream; 
Amun Ra, burnt orange and copper-colored; Canteen, 
shrimp-pink; Seiiorita, dark, velvety-red; E. T. Bedford, 
red-purple, touched with silver; Wizard of Oz, amber-pink 
and salmon; and Emily D. Remick, iridescent rose. 



The Cultivation of Pears* 

The pear is not indigenous to this country, but originated 
in the far East, probably in Syria and Egypt, and, in time. 
made its way through Greece and Italy into Western 
Europe, and thence to this country. As far as we can learn 
from the writings of those ancients whose works have sur- 
vived, Virgil, Pliny, and Theophrastus, the pear known to 
them was very different from the fruit as we know it, 
probably not much better than our own choke pears. 

In fact the pear as we know it, one of the most luscious of 
nature's morsels, did not begin to improve much until com- 
paratively modern times, and it is almost within the memory 
of people now living that those most luscious varieties, the 
Bartlett, Seckel, Bosc and Dana Hovey have been evolved. 

It is fortunate for our race, that on the route across the, 
European continent, lay the country of Belgium, for there 
the pear found the ideal conditions, not only of soil and 
climate, but also of scientific cultivators, who, by hybridiz- 
ing or crossing, produced many thousands of varieties, a 
large number of which have survived the natural elimination 
of the less valuable ones. 

Many Varieties 

For there are. probably, more varieties of pears than of 
any other fruit. One Belgian, Prof. Van Mons, alone raised 
80.000 varieties and he was but one enthusiast among many. 

I remember my father telling me, as a boy, that Marshall 
P. Wilder, a townsman of ours, then president of the Massa- 
chusetts Horticultural Society, had a thousand different 
kinds of pear trees growing on his estate in Dorchester, and 
this stupendous fact caused me to look at that grand old 
man with added awe on the only occasion I ever saw him. 

But Belgium is not the only country having the requisites 
for the production and development of this fruit in its most 



* A paper by Dr. Walter G-. Kendall of Atlantic, Mass. 

97 



98 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

exquisite qualities, for the one variety that is accepted the 
world over as the Standard of excellence, the one by which 
all others are compared, the Seckel, originated in America, 
a chance seedling, and many other delicious varieties that 
are frequently appearing are evidence that the newer soil 
and climate conditions of the Northern section of our coun- 
try are particularly congenial to this fruit. 

The tree is very long lived, there being several speci- 
mens in Europe that are known to be almost 500 years old, 
and it often grows to be of large size under favorable condi- 
tions, there being one tree in Herefordshire, England that 
covers almost an acre of ground, the branches bending down, 
taking root and growing still other branches that, in their 
turn, have taken root. 

The fruit from this particular tree is not of high quality, 
but is used to make perry, which is the fermented juice of 
the pear made exactly as cider is made but which is richer 
and a more delicious drink, very common in Europe but 
almost unknown in this country. An idea of the size of the 
Herefordshire tree may be gained from the fact that 15 hogs- 
heads of perry have been made from its fruit of one year. 
Although the one great use of the pear is as a dessert fruit, 
it is very valuable for preserving, baking, stewing, for mar- 
malade, and in some parts of Europe is dried as we dry 
apples. 

While the pear has the faculty of adapting itself to almost 
any kind of soil it will do best on a strong loam with dry 
subsoil or in a loose, strong clay, well drained. On sand it 
grows very fast, too fast, indeed, as the bark is likely to 
split and the tree to die. Such light soils, however, can be 
put into good condition by adding humus in the form of 
cover crops to be dug in, muck or peat or manure. 

Very wet soils should never be used for a pear plantation 
but, where one has the choice, a naturally rich, dry, well 
drained soil should be selected and a situation preferably 
facing the north or east rather than the south, that the tree 
trunks may be somewhat shaded from the scorching heat of 
our midday suns. 



THE CULTIVATION OF PEARS 99 

Two Classes 

We divide pear trees into two classes, the standards and 
the dwarfs. The standard is the true, original pear tree, 
pear stock grafted or budded onto pear roots, while the 
dwarf is similar stock grafted or budded onto quince roots, 
dwarfing the resulting tree. For commercial orchards, 
standards are almost universally used, leaving the dwarfs to 
the province of the amateur, or one whose orchard space is 
limited, or him who, like myself, has as chief object, the 
raising of fruit for exhibition, to show what beautiful speci- 
mens can be produced. 

In the orchard, standard trees should be set thirty feet 
apart and dwarfs twelve feet apart, although, if one prunes 
as vigorously as I do, the latter can be planted only ten feet 
apart. As far as possible plant the trees so they will get 
the morning sunlight, and this is a good rule to follow when 
setting out any tree where color of the fruit is a factor. It 
is the secret of my success in winning the first prizes at the 
Massachusetts Horticultural Society's shows. 

Try to get stocky trees, not the slender, whippy ones often 
sent out by unreliable dealers and, when planting, leave 
those buds necessary to form a well balanced head. Watch 
the tree closely for three or four years, rubbing off the suck- 
ers as fast as they appear, removing superfluous shoots and 
keeping the head open to let in air and sunshine. 

In all pruning, look at position of the buds. If you want 
an upright shoot trim to an inside bud and to an outside 
one if a downward growing shoot is desired. If you want 
a limb to grow in or out trim to a bud on that side. 

Do not neglect the trees but go over them frequently, in 
fhe summer, to remove the suckers that would rob them of 
their vitality and, eventually, ruin them. 

The Planting 

When the trees arrive from the nursery, in good condition, 
dig for each a hole deep enough to accommodate the tap 
root without bending, large enough for the side roots and 
deep enough to plant the trees as deep as they were in the 
nursery. 



100 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

Cut back the roots quite sharply and you will get action 
in growth more quickly than if all the roots are allowed to 
remain. See that the roots are well distributed, fill up one- 
third of the hole with surface soil (not using the subsoil 
removed to make the hole), tramp as firmly as possible, and 
then fill up another third of the hole, and tramp, and finish 
by filling up the remainder of hole and tramping. The sub- 
soil can go on top. You cannot get the soil packed too 
tightly about the roots of a transplanted tree. 

If possible, mulch the trees, after planting, with the best 
available material, but on no account, use green unfermented 
manure, either in planting or for mulching. Coal ashes are 
an excellent mulch for the orchard, that is, the ashes from 
anthracite coal. The ashes from bituminous coal carry too 
much sulphur. 

As a rule, pear trees need little stimulation but there are a 
few exceptions. For instance, the Seckel will well repay 
in tree growth and quality of fruit for more nourishment 
than is naturally furnished by even the best soil. 

The pear has many diseases and pest enemies, among them 
the curculic and codlin worm which may be combated with 
the usual arsenical mixtures, but the one great enemy is 
blight in its various forms. This is treated in many ways : 
my plan is merely to cut off every vestige of the disease, 
burn, and paint the wound made by the knife or saw. 

Of course, the trees will have been sprayed once or more 
times each season with some of the tested fungicides. The 
fruit of most varieties is borne in clusters and a vigorous 
thinning out will well repay both the amateur and the com- 
mercial grower, as the remaining fruit, having a better op- 
portunity to develop, will be larger and handsomer and will 
measure up in greater bulk than if all had been left on the 
trees. A good rule is to take off all you think should come 
off and then take off half of those that remain. 

The Seckel sets in clusters of four and Rye. Instead of 
allowing all of them to remain and develop into the little 
nubbins such as are usually seen in the markets, it is my 
practice to remove all but one, sometimes two, from each 
cluster, with the result that I have often had trouble per- 
suading people to believe that the pears I was showing them 
were actually Seckels. Dwarfs require very hard thinning. 



THE CULTIVATION OF PEARS 101 

Varieties 

A Sheldon is considered by many to be the most delicious 
of all fruits, but to me its peculiar flavor is very disagree- 
able. Another is the Anjou for which fancy prices are paid 
in the winter time and which, like the Sheldon, is an over- 
flowing reservoir of juicy sweetness, but the beautiful large 
trees of these two varieties that were growing on my place 
when it came into my possession have been grafted over 
with what I consider infinitely better kinds — the Bosc and 
the Dana Hovey. 

I have tested, both from the market and from home grow- 
ing, all the popular varieties and have gradually eliminated 
all except the Clapp's Favorite for early, Bartlett for sum- 
mer, Seckel and Bosc for early autumn, Dana Hovey for 
late autumn and Lawrence for winter. 

Clapp's Favorite is a large, beautiful fruit, highly colored, 
where exposed to the sunlight, but must be picked very 
early, long before the tyro would consider the proper time, 
as it is worthless if allowed to become at all mellow on the 
tree. Gathered at the right time, kept in the right place, 
and eaten at the right time, it is luscious. 

The Bartlett is undoubtedly the most popular of all pears 
and I doubt if it is ever ousted from that proud position. 
Large, handsome, juicy, aromatic, its vinous perfumed flavor 
is relished by most people and even if picked when only 
partly grown, will ripen into a delicious fruit. It originated 
in England in 1770 and was brought to Massachusetts by 
Enoch Bartlett, after whom it was named, although he was 
not its propagator. 

Some 25 years ago, it occurred to me to look up the orig- 
inal Bartlett tree of this country and I found it still alive 
on its original location in Roxbury, the estate having been 
converted into a Catholic institution carried on by the Little 
Sisters of the Poor. The good sisters kindly allowed me to 
take a few scions which I grafted into a wild stock on my 
place and several times since, the fruit from these scions 
have won first prizes at the Massachusetts Horticultural 
Society's shows in competition with the best produced in 
the State. 



102 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

The story of the Seckel is almost a romance. Originating 
in a hedge in Pennsylvania, it has attained the position of 
the standard by which all other pears are judged for quality. 
When sent to Europe for comparison with all the best vari- 
eties there grown — it was pronounced to excel in flavor any 
autumn varieties there known. The fruit is small but can 
be made larger than is usually seen if the soil about the tree 
is well fertilized and cultivated. 

Magnificent best describes the Bosc and it cannot be given 
too high praise. Large, juicy, rich in flavor, distinctive in 
shape, ornamental in growing. 

Dana Hovey is the one variety that nearest approaches the 
Seckel for high flavor and is of such quality that I am sur- 
prised that it is not more generally known. It is the pear 
known to the fancy market trade as "the Thanksgiving 
pear," because of being at its best at that season, and selling 
at a fancy price is one of the three or four varieties that I 
would set out if raising pears as a commercial proposition. 
Although about the same size as the Seckel, it can be made, 
like all other fruit to grow large by proper thinning out and 
has a rich, aromatic flavor, that must be tasted to be appre- 
ciated. 

The Lawrence can easily be kept until the holidays under 
ordinary conditions and much later into the winter in a 
cold place and then becomes a Bonne Bouche with exquisite, 
aromatic flavor and aroma. 

Commercial Pears 

Such are the varieties that I would recommend for one's 
own table, but there is another story when we come to a 
selection for the commercial planter who must have vari- 
eties that not only are prolific but that will keep well, so as 
to prolong the selling season and through their attractive- 
ness, will command the highest prices. 

To them my advice would be to plant no early ripening 
kinds, that will come into the market when it is glutted with 
many other fruits and have to compete with them. 

The pear is the one fruit that must not be allowed to ripen 
on the tree. Picked at the right time and matured in the 
house it will color up better and develop a finer aroma .and 



THE CULTIVATION OF PEARS 103 

richer flavor. This right time is when the seeds are brown in 
color, and when the fruit will part cleanly from the limb at 
the juncture of the stem, without the stem breaking, when 
lifted to an angle of say thirty degrees above the horizontal. 
Winter pears should be allowed to stay on the trees as late 
as possible to develop their flavor but not so late as to ripen 
there or to drop of their own accord. 

When possible, pick on a cool, dry day and place the fruit 
at once in shallow layers in the place where it is to be stored, 
which should be dark and where a uniform low temperature 
can be maintained, else it will rot without ripening. Cover 
it up to pr event shrivelling and above all, keep it in a dark 
place, until a week or ten days before you are to use it — - 
then place it in a warm room to develop the flavor and you 
will have the pear at its best. 



The Late Mary Crane Hewett 

After an unbroken service of thirty-four years as Assistant 
Librarian of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society, Mary 
Crane Hewett died on the twenty-second of February, 1924. 
It is fitting that upon the records of the Society there should 
be placed a tribute of appreciative remembrance of her faith- 
ful service. 

She entered upon the duties of her position in 1890, in the 
old Horticultural Hall on Tremont Street, under the late 
Robert Manning, the Secretary of the Society, and her long 
experience and familiarity with the library rendered her ser- 
vices of the greatest value in the development of this import- 
ant branch of the Society's work. She was diligent and pains- 
taking in her duties and was often called upon for horticul- 
tural information which only one thoroughly familiar with the 
library could supply. 

The crowning result of her long experience in the library 
was the preparation of the recently published Catalogue of 
the Library, upon which, in addition to her other regular 
duties, she had been engaged during the past few years. 

Miss Hewett was interested in outdoor life, and most of her 
summer outings were passed among the White Mountains of 
New Hampshire and in the excursions of the Appalachian 
Mountain Club, of which she was a member. 

William P. Rich. 



104 



Reports of the Officers and 
Committees for 1924 



Massachusetts Horticultural 

Society 



Presented at the Annual Meeting 
January 12, 1925 



With a list of the members of the Society 



107 



Inaugural Meeting 

The inaugural meeting was held at Horticultural Hall at 
3 o'clock in the afternoon of Monday, January 12, 1925, with 
a large attendance. President Albert C. Burrage was in the 
chair. The secretary read the call for the meeting and the 
minutes of the previous meeting at which the officers for 
1925 were elected. The rest of the meeting was given to the 
reading of the president's address and the presentation of 
reports. 

The President's Address 

Ladies and Gentlemen : — Again I am here as your out- 
going president to give you a report regarding the Society's 
work for the past year. It gives me great pleasure to do 
this, because it has been a most successful year from what- 
ever point viewed. 

The secretary reports that during the past year, 1924, the 
society added to its rolls 1014 new members — a record un- 
surpassed in the 96 years' history of the Society. In other 
words, the membership has doubled during the past year, 
and we have nearly a hundred more applications which will 
immediately be acted upon by the committee. 

There were during the year two less exhibitions than in 
the preceding year, but the attendance at these exhibitions 
exceeded that of the year before. It has been evident that 
the summer exhibitions have aroused greater interest and 
that they are more effective than they have been for some 
time. 

In addition to its regular exhibitions the Society housed 
and cared for, last May, the first national exhibition of the 
American Orchid Society, which aroused great interest and 
was attended by over 56,000 people. That great exhibition, 
with its wide range of tropical species and up-to-date hy- 
brids, its descriptive literature and its marvelous wealth of 
color and form, is acknowledged to have been of great edu- 
cational and horticultural value. The recognition which this 

108 



INAUGURAL MEETING 109 

exhibition received and the fact that no admission fee was 
charged has fully justified the co-operation of this Society 
in the exhibition. 

In connection with these exhibitions, there were given 
helpful and illustrated lectures by those best qualified to do 
so and the greater attendance at these lectures warrants 
their continuance in the future. These lectures may be ac- 
cepted as a fixed feature of our educational work. 

The increased membership of the Society has been reflected 
in the greater demand for the books and periodicals con- 
tained in our library and in the number of people who con- 
sult the library from time to time for the information which 
can only be obtained there. To facilitate this work, the 
Board of Trustees have provided greater facilities and are 
proceeding along definite lines with new assistants to bring 
the library and its use up to date, as they realize that with 
the increased number of those who own their own places in 
the country, there is a greater demand for horticultural 
literature. 

Gur new magazine Horticulture, was published through- 
out the year and enters upon the new year under most 
favorable auspices. This magazine has grown in strength 
and character and is being published upon economical 
lines and not for any profit other than that received by 
its readers. The recognition which this magazine has re- 
ceived has induced our two great sister Societies, the Horti- 
cultural Society of New York and the Pennsylvania Horticul- 
tural Society, to join us in the publication of the magazine, 
so that the first number for this year bears the title "Pub- 
lished by the Massachusetts Horticultural Society in con- 
junction with the Horticultural Society of New York and the 
Pennsylvania Horticultural Society." This means supplying 
the magazine with a larger number of readers and with many 
additional news items and articles, thus increasing the adver- 
tising value of the magazine, which, in turn, will be reflected 
in a larger and better magazine. 

It will be the aim of the publishers to supply the north- 
eastern section of the United States, through this semi- 
monthly publication, with the information which will be 
most interesting and helpful to it. 



110 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

As a result of the normal increase of the subscribers to this 
paper and the distribution of it to the members of the New 
York and Pennsylvania Societies, the number of copies now 
published is practically double what it was when this Society 
took over its publication in August, 1923. 

Recently a special committee has, under the direction of 
the trustees, revised the rules and regulations of the Society 
so as to make them clearer and more definite. The Commit- 
tee on Exhibitions have had many meetings in going over 
the schedule, an examination of which will show that there 
are a number of new features. Special awards have been 
provided for special subjects so as to create a greater inter- 
est and more activity on the part of exhibitors and gar- 
deners. 

There are few societies better organized today than the 
Massachusetts Horticultural Society for carrying out its 
particular work. With its building, library, and equipment, 
its skilled executive employees, its schedule, its rules and 
regulations and the good will of the public as well as of its 
members, it is fitted to render most valuable service to the 
community which it serves. 

The Board of Trustees are absolutely harmonious and, so 
far as I know, there is no friction or jealousy anywhere in 
its organization. We do not always agree at first but we 
always do in the end. Those who, in recent years, have had 
to do with the selection of trustees for this society have tried 
constantly to bear in mind the varied interests of the Society 
and to see that these interests were adequately represented 
in the active management of the Society. 

At the present time these individuals are working together 
in the most friendly way to do everything possible on their 
part to co-ordinate the work of all the members of the Society 
and those who work with them, not only in the putting on 
exhibition of the best they have in the way of flowers and 
flowering plants, but also in the dissemination of the knowl- 
edge acquired through the experience of the growers. 

The Board of Trustees must necessarily be limited to a 
small number and at the present time the Board consists of 
twenty members, including the four ex-presidents, who are 
ex-ofiicio trustees. On the other hand, the total membership 
of the Society is now over two thousand. In other words, 



INAUGURAL MEETING 111 

there is one trustee to approximately every hundred mem- 
bers. 

It is not necessary for me to speak here in praise of your 
Board of Trustees, but I do believe it is helpful to show, 
here and now, its personnel and representative character. 

You think of the trustees by name — as "Roland, "Webster, 
Appleton, or Kidder," — but do you realize what is repre- 
sented on your Board? Do you bear in mind that it has not 
only several ladies and gentlemen representing, as amateurs, 
the old private country estates which gave Massachusetts 
horticulture its early and lasting reputation, such as Sar- 
gent, Lyman, Ames, Hunnewell and Endicott, but also that 
it has individual representatives of law, medicine, science, 
botany, literature, world-wide plant exploration, agriculture, 
banking, business, manufacture, trustees, real estate, tech- 
nical, building, commercial florists, commercial nurserymen 
and professional gardeners, all chosen because of their love 
of plants and flowers and their direct personl interest in 
horticulture? Such a board is not limited to flower lovers 
or greenhouse growers, but is truly representative of horti- 
culture and covers our city, country, suburban and seashore 
life. 

Under these conditions it is evident that it should be the 
special function of the trustees not only to administer the 
affairs of the society such as the necessary financial affairs 
and the selection of employees, but to arrange the exhibi- 
tions, their rules and regulations and prizes, and the lectures, 
and also the outside work such as the recognition of superior 
gardens, so that the greatest good will be done to the great- 
est number of members of the society. 

By virtue of their experience, study and discussion, it is 
fair to assume that the trustees as a whole, through the law 
of averages, should have the necessary knowledge of what 
the Society should do from time to time which will be of the 
greatest benefit to the whole body of members. 

Sometimes in the past few years since the world war, I 
have thought that our exhibitions were devoting too much 
attention to floriculture. It may be said that this perhaps 
was due to the post war situation and that certain members 
of your Society, particularly of your Board of Trustees, have 
felt that unless they exerted themselves personally to put up 



112 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

groups of flowering plants the exhibitions would not be as 
complete or interesting as they should be. 

The trustees now feel that the time is ripe for paying 
more attention to consideration of outdoor work ; that is, the 
studying and reporting upon the better garden estates, both 
large and small, and the recognition from time to time of 
those which are found to be superior. That it is the intention 
of the trustees to give more recognition in this direction 
will be seen by closer study of the schedule. 

Rules and regulations amount to little if they do not 
interest the members. Schedules are of but little value if 
the classes are not filled and the awards not made. Prizes 
are of no value unless they are worked for. 

The trustees alone cannot do the principal work of the 
Society. It is their place rather to co-ordinate the work of 
the other members. The structure will not be complete and 
the results will not be satisfactory unless the members at 
large who are not on the Board of Trustees do their part, 
and this is what I desire to emphasize in my report this 
year, — that is, the necessity of hearty and spontaneous co- 
operation by the members with the Board of Trustees, for 
their common benefit. The trustees should always be willing, 
regardless of their individual judgment or bias or personal 
interest, to consider the criticisms, complaints, or sugges- 
tions, either singly or in groups, by the members of the 
Society; and this I know the present trustees are willing 
to do. 

In the history of the Society, as horticultural conditions 
have changed from time to time, there have been many 
changes in the actual work of the Society, and these are 
largely due to the suggestions of individual members who 
are not trustees. 

I therefore ask from now on that there be more earnest 
co-operation on the part of the members and that everyone 
do his utmost to advance the work of the Society and make 
it still more helpful. 

It is with great regret that I must record here the loss of 
our esteemed vice-president, Mr. Thomas Allen, whose great 
value to the Society was known and recognized by those 
most familiar with its work. He never neglected any task 



INAUGURAL MEETING 113 

assigned to him and he was always most ready to help the 
Society in every way in his power. 

Today we welcome among our trustees another Hunnewell, 
the third of the name, bringing to us his rich inheritance 
from the experience of three generations of expert horticul- 
turists. 

In thinking of this Society it is to be borne in mind that 
ours is not what might be called a fashionable society; that 
is, it has not, so far as I know, within a quarter of a century, 
carried on a drive either for endowment or expenses. I can- 
not recall that it has, at any time during the nearly twenty 
years I have been a member of the Society, ever made a 
public appeal for funds for any purpose whatever. 

The subject of medals is often referred to by members of 
the Society and I would like to take advantage of this oppor- 
tunity to say a few words upon this subject. 

Unless somebody grows and exhibits, either in the ground 
or in exhibition halls, superior plants and flowers, how will 
the plant- and flower-lovers know what is superior and what 
they should aim for? Unless superior products are recog- 
nized by fitting awards people will not go to the labor and 
expense necessary to exhibit them for the benefit of others. 

It is right that gold medals should be awarded to large 
and comprehensive groups of superior foliage plants and 
flowers which require years of costly cultivation to reach 
perfection and great expense to transport and exhibit, and 
it is right, too, that rare and valuable single plants should be 
richly rewarded ; otherwise we will not know what is a fine 
plant. It is probable, however, that every gold medal 
awarded by this Society within recent years has cost the 
beneficiary, directly or indirectly, at least ten times the 
intrinsic value of such medal. The recipients of these medals 
are proud to have earned the medal; they feel that such 
recognition justifies the time, labor and expense required for 
the up-building of their exhibits. But do they get more 
pleasure out of such medals than the recipients of the silver 
medals do for their lesser exhibits ? I think not. And your 
trustees, with this in mind, hope that the awards provided 
for in the schedule will attract a wider range of exhibits 
from a larger number of members. 



114 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

The other day Mr. Ernest H. Wilson, famous plant explorer, 
told us that one day last summer at Foxboro, Mass., he came 
upon a most charming little colony of perhaps a hundred 
Lilium speciosum, quite the best he had ever seen in this 
country and one that would rank high even in southern 
Japan, where it is native. We had never before heard of 
this colony. The owner is unknown to us and we do not 
even know whether he is a member of our society. We do 
know that this superb little garden is quite unrecognized 
except for the photograph which Mr. Wilson took of it. Is 
this right? Should not greater recognition be given to a 
splendid, highly specialized, garden, even though it be 
small ? 

We are living in an age of highly intensive specialists 
where genius and prolonged study has produced such mar- 
velous products as the telephone, wireless telegraph, radio, 
aeroplane, etc., and in which also similar original work has 
been done in horticulture. Our great George R. White Gold 
Medal last year was bestowed upon Monsieur Pernet-Ducher, 
a rose hybridist, for his great work in developing and per- 
fecting a special strain of roses, the so-called Pernetiana 
family. 

Personally, I believe that the greatest good that this 
Society can do in the next few years is to encourage and 
recognize the production of finer horticultural products, 
whether in the nursery or in the private garden, large or 
small. 

We live in a severe climate. We have not the sun or the 
heat to raise tropical plants outdoors, but we can — thanks 
to science and transportation facilities — make an acre of 
ground here in Massachusetts the equal of any acre of 
ground in the world; and therefore we can grow here and 
perfect the plants which are hardy to our climate. 

Our course is well charted, the sea is smooth, the sun is 
shining, the wind is fair. There is no sign of an approaching 
iceberg and no fog appears on the horizon. Let us rejoice 
and make the most of a great opportunity. 

Albert C. Burraghe, President. 



INAUGURAL MEETING 115 

Report of the Secretary 

The large increase in membership, as noted by the presi- 
dent in his report, has resulted in a corresponding increase 
in all of the Society's activities. The shows have aroused 
a greater interest than for several years and there has been 
a steady demand for year books and bulletins issued by the 
Society. 

The business of the Society has been conducted almost 
wholly by the trustees as a body, the executive committee 
having held only one meeting in the year. The trustees' 
meetings have been largely attended without exception. 

The first meeting of the year was held January 14, at 
which time a resolution was adopted that the Society take 
measures to recognize exceptional merit of individuals doing 
valuable work in horticulture. The committees for the year 
were named at this meeting. 

A letter from the Horticultural Club of Boston was read, 
advocating the greater encouragement of commercial 
growers in making exhibitions at the shows. A committee 
was appointed to meet a similar committee from the Horti- 
cultural Club of Boston to discuss the matters mentioned in 
this letter. 

A few weeks later the members of the Horticultural Club 
of Boston met with President Burrage at which time the 
whole matter of the best methods to pursue in carrying on 
the shows of the Society were discussed. 

The next meeting of the trustees was held on June 9, at 
which time Mrs. G. S. Maynard was elected librarian for 
one year. It was voted at this meeting to propose an amend- 
ment to the by-laws to increase the members of the Library 
Committee to three. This amendment was passed at the 
annual meeting in November. 

William Anderson, superintendent for Mrs. Bayard 
Thayer, and Charles Sander, superintendent for Professor 
C. S. Sargent, were awarded the Society's gold medal for 
eminent service in horticulture. 

At a meeting on October 7, Professor Sargent was asked 
to prepare a resolution on the death of the late Thomas ' 
Allen, vice president of the Society. Mr. E. S. Webster was 
named as vice president to fill the vacancy caused by the 



116 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

death of Mr. Allen. Mr. Roland was chosen to fill out Mr. 
Allen's unexpired term as chairman of the Committee on 
Exhibitions. 

The Committee on Gardens, Mr. William C. Endicott, 
chairman, presented the committee's recommendations for 
the presentation of a gold medal to Mr. Henry Hyslop 
Richardson, for his wild garden of American plants in 
Brookline. 

Miss Marian Roby Case, and her sister, Miss Louise W. 
Case, were given a vote of thanks for their gift of framed 
pictures. 

A letter was presented from the State Department of 
Agriculture, suggesting a joint fruit show to be held in the 
autumn of 1925. The matter was referred to the Committee 
on Exhibitions with power, and this committee subsequently 
completed arrangements for such an exhibition, which will 
be held the last three days of October and the first day of 
November, 1925. 

The secretary was instructed to formulate a plan for re- 
ceiving flowers and fruit at the hall for distribution by the 
Benevolent Fruit and Flower Mission. Plans are now being 
made for the development of this work on a much larger 
scale than in the past, and the hall will probably become a 
receiving center the coming year. 

At a meeting November 15, Professor Sargent, chairman 
of the Committee on the George Robert White Medal of 
Honor, reported that the committee had unanimously agreed 
to recommend the award of the medal for 1924 to Joseph 
Pernet-Ducher, the famous French rosarian. 

Mr. Endicott, for the Committee on Gardens, recommended 
several awards, as follows : 

Gold medals to Alexander Montgomery and Miss Grace 
Sturtevant; silver medals to Mrs. Harriett R. Foote and 
Eugene N. Fischer; garden certificates to Thomas F. Dona- 
hue and Edward H. Clarkson. 

At this meeting it was also voted to award gold medals for 
eminent service in horticulture to Robert Cameron and T. 
D. Hatfield. 

It was voted to raise the life membership fee from $30 to 
$50. It was decided, however, to continue for another year 
without an admission fee for annual members. 



INAUGURAL MEETING 117 

At this meeting President Burrage announced that he 
would give a one-hundred-dollar cup, to be known as the 
President's Cup, for award at each of the scheduled exhibi- 
tions of the Society for the year 1925. President Burrage 
also offered a fifty-dollar silver cup for award to the best 
flower garden made by a member of the Society under 18 
years of age. 

Plans for improving the acoustic properties of the lecture 
hall and otherwise improving the building were discussed. 

At this meeting and at a subsequent meeting held Decem- 
ber 9, the question of selling a blanket subscription to 
Horticulture to the Horticultural Society of New York 
and the Pennsylvania Horticultural Society, with the under- 
standing that these two societies shall have a part in the 
publication of the paper, were discussed at length. The 
decision was finally made to enter into an arrangement with 
both societies whereby all of their members shall receive a 
copy of Horticulture, the names of these societies to appear 
with that of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society on the 
cover of the magazine. 

At the meeting December 9, the trustees voted to accede 
to a request from the Horticultural Club of Boston that the 
Society take over and administer funds raised by the Horti- 
cultural Club of Boston as a memorial to the late Jackson 
Dawson. Plans were discussed for the awarding of medals 
to private gardens and commercial establishments of special 
merit. 

On recommendation of the Exhibition Committee the trus- 
tees voted to have only free exhibitions in 1925. 

Miss Case stated that the summer lectures had proved very 
successful and a sum of $500 was appropriated for a con- 
tinuation of these lectures during the coming year. 

The final meeting of the trustees was held December 29, 
at which time Mr. Thomas Roland, of Nahant, was voted the 
Society's large gold medal for his lifetime devotion to flori- 
culture and the eminent services rendered by him in further- 
ing the interests of horticulture. 

Mrs, Bayard Thayer announced her desire to give prizes 
amounting to $250 for the cultivation of native shrubs. Her 
offer was accepted with thanks, and a plan was worked out 
which appears in the schedule for 1925. 



118 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

A resolution was passed expressing the Society's desire to 
cooperate with the Horticultural Society of New York and 
the Pennsylvania Horticultural Society in every way for the 
promotion of horticulture, and particularly in connection 
with the exhibitions. 

Death has taken a large toll of members during the year, 
a total of 26 having passed away. 

The summer lectures were well attended, as was a special 
lecture given by Mr. Herbert Gleason in the spring on the 
Gardens of Bar Harbor. 

In February the Society gave the use of the hall to the 
landscape architects of Boston, who conducted an exhibition 
and gave a series of lectures. The attendance was large, and 
much interest was shown. It may be said incidentally that 
many of the persons who attended this exhibition became 
interested in the Massachusetts Horticultural Society and 
took out application blanks. 

The outstanding exhibition of the year was the great Or- 
chid Show in May. This exhibit was given by the American 
Orchid Society, but the Massachusetts Horticultural Society 
acted as hosts, and its president, Mr. Albert C. Burrage, who 
is also president of the American Orchid Society, set up a 
most remarkable exhibit which entirely filled the large hall. 
The exhibition was attended by Mr. Gurney Wilson, of the 
Royal Horticultural Society, who acted as one of the judges, 
and who carried back to England such a commendatory 
report that the Royal Horticultural Society voted to award 
Mr. Burrage its gold medal. In his letter announcing this 
award, the secretary stated that it was given because of the 
supreme merit of the display made, and because of its educa- 
tional value. This is the first time that the medal of the 
Royal Horticultural Society has ever been given for an ex- 
hibit staged in America. 

Later in the year Professor C. S. Sargent, director of the 
Arnold Arboretum, and vice president of the Society, was 
honored by being awarded the Loder Rhododendron Cup for 
the year 1925. The honor is an unusual one, for the cup has 
never before been awarded to any person outside of England. 

The broadened scope of the Society's work is seen in the 
fact that a number of allied organizations, such as the 
Gardeners and Florists Club, the New England Gladiolus 



INAUGURAL MEETING 119 

Society, The New England Dahlia Society and the Boston 
Market Gardeners Association are now holding their meet- 
ings in the hall. 

As superintendent of the building, the secretary desires to 
say that a great amount of renovation work has been carried 
on during the past year. This has included the redecorating 
of the library, the upper corridor, the trustees' room and 
the offices. A new system of lighting has been installed in 
the large exhibition hall, which gives much greater illumina- 
tion without any increase in expense. Some work yet re- 
mains to be done in renovating the lecture hall. All of the 
work mentioned, except the lighting installation, has been 
done by Ellis Joy the janitor, and his assistants at a material 
saving in cost. 

In closing his report, the secretary desires to express his 
warm appreciation of the hearty support given him by the 
officers, trustees and members. 

E. I. Farrington, Secretary. 



Report of the Treasurer 

Income 



Income from. Investments and Bank Interest .... $18,559 42 

" " Rents 9,443 55 

" " Membership Fees 2,040 00 

" " Sale of Lots in Mt. Auburn Cemetery 3,726 09 

" " Library Catalogue 52 18 

" " Sundry Donations 10 00 $33,831 24 



Expenses 

Operating Expense $26,572 94 

Viz : Salaries $7,529 06 

Insurance 1,485 74 

Heating 1,111 22 

Labor 7,583 00 

Incidentals 2,856 42 

Stationery and Printing 2,140 25 

Lighting 2,789 71 

Library 498 63 

Repairs 578 91 



Prizes $ 4,708 25 



120 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

Viz: Plants and Flowers in excess of 

income from special funds . . $1,278 00 
Fruits in excess of income from 

special funds 493 00 

Vegetables in excess of income 

from special funds 892 00 

Children's Gardens 273 25 

Spring Exhibition 1,772 00 

Expenditures by Committees $ 2,182 38 

Viz : Lectures and Publications 383 58 

Medals 1,291 80 

Plants and Flowers 237 00 

Fruits 130 00 

Vegetables 140 00 

Expenses Paid from Funds $ 2,429 97 

Viz: Samuel Appleton Fund 30 00 

Theodore Lyman " 411 00 

Josiah Bradlee " 45 00 

Benj. V. French " 35 00 

H. H. Hunnewell " 153 00 

Wm. J. Walker " 174 00 

Marshall P. Wilder " 38 00 

Henry A. Gane " 36 00 

John D. W. French " 525 78 

John S. Farlow " 105 30 

John C. Chaffin " 122 00 

Benj. V. French " 121 00 

John Allen French " 294 39 

John S. Farlow " 42 00 

George R. White Medal Fund 297 50 

Miscellaneous Expense 290 00 

Excess of expenditures over income 2,352 30 $36,183 54 

Membership 
December 31, 1924 

Life Members, December 31, 1923 805 

Added in 1924 69 

Changed from annual 8 

882 



INAUGURAL MEETING 121 

Deceased 26 856 

Annual Members, December 31, 1923 205 

Added in 1924 841 

Changed to Life 8 1,046 

Resigned 1 9 1,037 

Membership, December 31, 1924 1,893 

Income from Membership 

69 New Life Members at $30 $2,070 00 

8 Annual Members Changed to Life 178 00 

788 New Annual Members at $2 1,576 00 

3 New Annual Members at $10 30 00 

Annual Members Dues for 1924 410 00 

Dues in arrears, paid up 24 00 



$4,288 00 

(Note. Dues for years 1925 to 1928, totaling $210 were paid in 

advance. This amount is not included in income as it is not 1924 income.) 

List of Stocks and Bonds Held by the Massachusetts 
Horticultural Society 

$2,000 Kansas, Clinton & Springfield 5% Bonds 1925 $ 1,980 00 

$10,000 Lake Shore & Mich. Southern R. R. 3y 2 % Bonds 1997 10,000 00 

$50,000 Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe 4% Bonds 1995 44,693 25 

$11,300 Pere Marquette R. R. 5% Bonds 9,933 75 

$25,000 Kan. City, Ft. Scott & Memphis 6% Bonds 1928 25,000 00 

$50,000 Chicago, Burlington & Quincy, 111. Div. 3y 2 % Bonds 

1949 50,000 00 

$8,000 Boston & Maine R. R. 4y 2 % Bonds 1944 8,000 00 

$4,000 American Tel. & Tel. Co. Conv. 4% Bonds 1936 .... 4,000 00 

$4,000 Interborough Rap. Transit 5% Bonds 1966 3,920 00 

$12,000 Pacific Tel. & Tel. Co. 5% Bonds 1937 11,670 00 

$10,000 American Tel. & Tel. Co. Conv. 4y 2 % Bonds 1933 . . 8,396 00 

$5,000 United States Steel 5% Bonds 1963 5,043 75 

$10,000 Appalachian Pr. Co. 5% Bonds 1941 9,225 00 

$20,000 Atlantic Refining Co. 5% Bonds 1937 19,940 00 

$10,000 Chicago, Burlington & Quincy 5% Bonds 1971 10,212 50 

$10,000 N. Y. C. R. R. Co. 5% Bonds 2013 9,950 00 

$11,000 Consolidated Electric Co. 5% Bonds 1955 10,010 00 

$10,000 So. California Tel. Co. 5% Bonds 1947 9,550 00 

$11,000 Ohio Power Co. 6% Bonds 1953 10,835 00 



122 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

$3,000 Chicago Junction Rys. 5% Bonds 1940 2,824 50 

$5,000 Commonwealth Edison 5% Bonds 1943 4,932 50 

$5,000 American Telephone & Telegraph Co. 5% Bonds 1946 4,973 75 
$5,000 New England Telephone & Telegraph Co. 5% Bonds 

1952 4,982 50 

$5,000 Detroit Edison 5% Bonds 1940 4,807 50 

$13,000 Southern Public Utilities 5% Bonds 1943 11,862 50 

$5,000 Western Union 5% Bonds 1938 4,982 50 

$5,000 Western Electric Co. 5% Bonds 1944 4,825 00 

Shares 

337 Shs. General Electric Co. ) -13 596 36 

504 " " " " Special Stock \ 

110 " Standard Oil Co. of New Jersey 11,550 00 



$331,696 36 



Horticulture 
Receipts and Disbursements Year 1924 

Receipts 

Advertising $5,298 82 

Subscriptions 3,295 86 

Books 388 75 

Miscellaneous 255 72 

Donations 1,000 00 

Advanced by Horticultural Society 500 00 



Expenses 

Printing $5,664 61 

Paper 1,869 00 

Books 322 48 

Cuts 609 63 

Commissions and Discounts 292 58 

Postage 543 55 

Wrappers 132 00 

Contributions 63 50 

Photographs 3 00 

Miscellaneous 888 29 

Returned to Horticultural Society 400 00 



$10,739 15 



$10,788 64 

John S. Ames, 

Treasurer. 



INAUGURAL MEETING 123 

Report of the Committee on Plants and Flowers 

The exhibitions of this Society for the year 1924 were well 
above the average, the quality of plants and flowers shown 
and the arrangement being a decided improvement over 
previous years. 

Special features of the spring exhibition were the spring 
bulb gardens, the 100 foot groups in competition for the 
President's Cup and the fine display of bulbous plants. 
Thomas Roland was awarded the President's Cup for a well 
arranged group of choice Flowering and Foliage plants which 
included Acacias, Camellias, Ericas and Roses. The Society's 
gold medal went to Iristhorp for a bulb garden in which 
Tulips and other spring flowering plants in great variety 
were effectively displayed. Azalea Kaempferi in full flower 
was used as a background. 

Orchids were less conspicuous than usual at this show, 
most of them apparently being held for the special Orchid 
show held in May. There was a splendid display of Carna- 
tions. C. B. Johnston was first for the best decorative display, 
showing many of the best varieties among which were Aggie 
Rose a fine rose pink, which was awarded a first class certifi- 
cate of merit. Our Mary and Peach by the same exhibitor 
were each awarded honorable mention. Roses were good, 
America, Madame Butterfly, Columbia, Commonwealth, Had- 
ley and Souv. de Claudius Pernet were the most conspicuous 
varieties. The F. R. Pierson Co. had a table decoration of 
the new yellow Rose Mrs. Calvin Coolidge which was 
awarded a Silver Medal. The display of bulbous plants was 
very extensive. Well grown Tulips of all classes, Hyacinths 
and Narcissus were shown, also an interesting group of 
Lachenalia Nelsonii. The model garden exhibited by Eric 
Wetterlow attracted much attention and was awarded the 
Appleton gold medal. 

June 7th and 8th, the date of the Rhododendron and Iris ex- 
hibition, proved to be about a week too early for these flowers. 
However, the Walter Hunnewell estate put up an exhibit of 
cut Rhododendrons and Azaleas among which was a new hy- 
brid Rhododendron, named "Caroline" which received an 
award of merit. The cup offered by President Burrage for 
the best group of Irises arranged for effect was awarded to T. 



124 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

F. Donahue, Newton Lower Falls. Magnifica was the best 
in his group which contained many fine varieties. Mrs. 
Bayard Thayer of Lancaster was awarded a gold medal for 
a splendid group of Lilium regale. These were shown in fine 
condition and were very much admired. J. T. Butterworth 
put up a wonderful group of Miltonia vexillaria ; the plants 
were splendidly flowered and a gold medal was awarded this 
group. Mr. Butterworth also had on exhibition a number 
of plants of Cattleya Mossiae Mrs. J. T. Butterworth, said 
to be, so far as known, the best form of Cattleya Mossiae in 
cultivation. This was awarded a gold medal. H. S. Rand 
of Cambridge put up a most interesting exhibit of scented 
leaved Pelargoniums, 36 varieties in all, for which he was 
awarded a silver medal. The Garden Club of America ex- 
hibited seven models of houses and gardens. The committee 
greatly admired the good judgment and skill manifested by 
all the makers of these exhibits, but decided that the exhibit 
made by Mrs. W. H. Carey, was deserving of a bronze medal, 
a silver medal being awarded the exhibit as a whole. 

The Rose, Peony and Sweet Pea Show, June 28 and 29, 
brought out the greatest display of high class Peonies ever 
seen in Boston. T. C. Thurlow's Sons were the largest ex- 
hibitors, winning first for display of Peonies arranged for 
effect, and also winning the cup offered by President 
Burrage for a group of Peonies covering a space of 150 feet. 
There were four other competitors in this class, all showing 
groups of high quality. 

Professor A. P. Saunders of Clinton, New York, brought in 
a fine display of very promising seedlings as did Arthur 
Fewkes of Newton. Anton Bulk of Middletown, R. I. had 
some fine vases of Queen Wilhelmina, a variety very much 
resembling Sarah Bernhardt. 

Roses were a feature of the show and were largely shown. 
Silver Moon and Dr. Huey were two of the most striking 
varieties. Allan Jenkins won the President's Cup for the 
best display of Sweet Peas. George Bond of Newport was 
first in all the classes calling for 25 sprays of the various 
colors. 

Although the season was very late the Gladiolus exhibi- 
tion, August 15 to 17, held in co-operation with the New 
England Gladiolus Society, was one of the best of its kind 



INAUGURAL MEETING 125 

ever held in Boston. The halls were well filled and the 
exhibits well arranged. A. L. Stephen of Waban won the 
cup offered by President Burrage, also the Society's gold 
medal for the best collection arranged for effect, any and 
all classes. 

Clark W. Brown of Ashland was awarded the Society's 
silver medal and Mrs. M. B. Hawkes of Bennington, Vt., the 
bronze medal in the same class. 

There was keen competition in classes for vases and decor- 
ative baskets, but nearly all the vases were far too crowded. 
There were many new varieties of merit, but the most con- 
spicuous and the two which attracted most attention from 
visitors were Mrs. Dr. Norton and Scarlet Princeps. 

The Dahlia Show held September 13 and 14 in co-operation 
with the New England Dahlia Society was remarkable for 
the large quantity of high class flowers shown and the fine 
groups most tastefully arranged. Especially deserving of 
notice were the two groups put up by Mr. L. L. Branthover 
of the Quannapowitt Dahlia Gardens of Wakefield. One of 
these groups was arranged on the stage of the lecture hall, 
the flowers were in tall vases and excellent taste used in the 
color arrangement. Smilax and other evergreens were 
freely used. The A. C. Burrage cup was awarded this excel- 
lent exhibit. Mr. Branthover 's other group was awarded 
the Society's silver medal for the largest and best display. 
J. K. Alexander of East Bridgewater was second in this 
class. 

Tall baskets and vases were freely used in the decorative 
displays and in this way the usual monotonous and formal 
effects were avoided. Mr. Burrage had a splendid group of 
Vanda coerulea which won a silver medal. One plant of 
Vanda coerulea Orchidvale var. was awarded a first class 
Certificate of Merit. 

The Autumn exhibition was held October 24-26. These 
dates appear to have been about a week too early to bring 
out the best Chrysanthemums in either the double, single or 
pompon varieties. The notable features of this exhibition 
were the fine groups of foliage and flowering plants, dis- 
plays of Chrysanthemums, Orchids, Nerines and Begonias. 
E. S. Webster won the first prize for a group covering 200 
square feet. Iristhorp was second. Both groups were artis- 



126 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

tically arranged and attracted much attention. Patten & 
Co. won the silver cup offered by President Burrage. 

The group of Hybrid Cattleyas put up by A. C. Burrage 
was the most notable exhibit of these hybrids ever seen in 
Horticultural Hall and was awarded the Society's gold medal. 
Mr. Burrage was also first for best specimens Orchid. E. S. 
Webster was first for group of Orchids covering 50 square 
feet. Mr. Roland had a fine display of Cypripediums, J. T. 
Butterworth Cypripediums and Epidendrums. Nerines were 
extensively shown and attracted much attention. The new 
crimson Rose Paul Revere was on exhibition, also the new 
Rose Sensation. Conspicuous among Carnations were Spec- 
trum and Betty Lou, both of which were awarded first class 
certificates of merit. There was keen competition in a class 
for cut sprays of fruiting trees and shrubs. This is an inter- 
esting class for the autumn exhibition. Pour prominent 
nurserymen were exhibitors at this show and put up fine 
exhibits of Evergreens. The most notable was that of the 
Blue Hills Nursery Co. which contained no less than 142 vari- 
eties all plainly labeled. This splendid group was arranged 
across the end of the main hall and could have occupied a 
much larger space with advantage, if space had been avail- 
able. It well deserved the gold medal awarded. 

William Anderson, Chairman. 



Report of the Committee on Fruit 

The display of fruit has been a feature at four of the 
exhibitions this past year and the quality of the fruit shown 
has done credit to the exhibitors as well as adding interest 
and educational value to the exhibitions. 

The committee does not feel satisfied with the number of 
entries made in the different classes. The Massachusetts 
Horticultural Society has its headquarters and holds its 
exhibitions in the centre of the greatest berry and fruit 
section in the East and should be able to stage much larger 
displays of berries and fruits than it has during the past 
year. 

A study of the status of fruit exhibits at other shows in 
the east reveals the fact that there has been a steady decline 



INAUGURAL MEETING 127 

in number of entries and interest in fruit displays. This 
decline was already under way before the war started and 
was accentuated during the war. The consensus of opinion 
as to ithe cause of this decline seems to be that the size of 
the money prizes and the number of prizes in each class 
have not increased materially during a period when fruit 
and time have increased in value a great deal. 

Insect ravages and diseases have increased greatly during 
recent years which make it increasingly difficult for the back 
yard gardener to produce fruit and berries of prize winning 
quality. This means that we are more and more forced to 
draw our fruit exhibits from commercial growers and from 
large estates. We cannot obtain the interest of these 
growers unless we can offer them larger prizes which will 
somewhere near reimburse them for the time and trouble 
necessary to select and stage exhibits. 

The committee finds that expositions and fair manage- 
ments throughout the east have during the past three years 
made very decided increases in the money prizes offered in 
their fruit departments. They report that the number of 
entries and the size of the displays are increasing rapidly. 
The committee, therefore, trusts that the trustees will give 
this matter some study and if found worthy and practical 
give fruit a larger appropriation for 1926.. The committee 
has discontinued several worthy classes in the schedule for 
the late October Exhibition for 1925 in order to increase the 
number of prizes from three to five in the remaining classes. 

Your trustees have invited the New England Fruit Show 
Inc. and kindred horticultural and state organizations in 
New England to join with them in staging a Grand Exhibi- 
tion of Fruits October 29, 30, 31 and November 1st of this 
year. The Committee on Fruit plan to cooperate with these 
people in every way possible and help make the exhibition 
the great success which it deserves to be. 

The weather during the past year has on the whole been 
very favorable for the production of high quality fruit. The 
season was very late which made it difficult to get out large 
exhibits of berries and cherries. Peach buds were winter- 
killed over the greater part of the state which cut down the 
number of entries of peaches. The excessive dry weather 
lessened disease ravages but reduced the size of fruit. 



128 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

I must not close this report without mentioning the very 
promising new strawberry (Hillerest 14) exhibited by Miss 
Marian Roby Case of Weston. It has real merit. More new 
varieties of fruit have been originated in eastern Massachu- 
setts than anywhere else in the United States. The commit- 
tee invites exhibits during the coming year of new varieties 
of berries and fruits. 

There were many very wonderful single entries of apples, 
pears and grapes at the Grand Autumn Exhibition but the 
fifty and twenty-five apple displays attracted the most 
attention. 

Albert R. Jenks, Chairman. 



Report of the Vegetable Committee 

The exhibits of vegetables made at the several shows held 
during the past year were of about average extent and 
quality. The season was not on the whole a favorable one 
for vegetable culture. We had a cold, wet spring and the 
growing season was abnormally dry. Having in mind these 
facts the displays were generally satisfactory. There was 
a slight falling off in the entries in the collection classes 
which seemed regrettable but was due to two of our exhibi- 
tors moving away. As the collections arranged for effect 
should be one of the most striking and interesting features 
of our exhibitions it is to be sincerely hoped that additional 
exhibitors may be secured. 

The fine collection of vegetables arranged for artistic effect 
from Joseph Breck & Sons Corporation at the Dahlia exhibi- 
tion was the best effort of this kind we have ever had from 
anyone in the trade and was unquestionably the exhibit 
which attracted the most attention at that exhibition. For 
this well arranged and comprehensive display a silver gilt 
medal was awarded. The exhibit from Hillerest Gardens at 
the Autumn exhibition, comprising both fruits and vege- 
tables, received a similar award and was without question 
one of the great features of that show. It is needless to say 
that well arranged groups of vegetables are striking features 
at any horticultural exhibition and the skill in growing and 



INAUGURAL MEETING 129 

arranging them is equal to that required to produce and 
properly display any other types of garden produce. 

Possibly the elimination of single plate classes would in a 
sense make for more artistic shows. Unfortunately but few 
exhibitors have sufficient material for collections and their 
omission would materially reduce our exhibits, and the 
largest and most successful societies in the world find that 
they bring out the keenest competitions. Your committee 
feel that our Society should continue to encourage vegetable 
gardening, and hope that it may be possible to stage a large 
exhibition of vegetables in 1926. It should be remembered 
that vegetables are a most important food crop and their 
gross sales value in this state is vastly greater than that of 
fruits, plants and flowers combined. 

Some of the most valuable varieties of vegetables have 
had their origin in this state, and it would seem fitting that 
when a suitable occasion arises the committee on vegetables 
should have the power to visit gardens or commercial grow- 
ing establishments for the purpose of seeing novelties grow- 
ing in order to the better note their points of difference over 
existing varieties or types, and recommend suitable awards 
by this Society for such. This would help the producer and 
let him see that we are anxious to give his productions^ when 
really meritorious, the stamp of our approval. Surely such a 
policy is bound to make the great commercial vegetable 
growing interests see that as we desire to help them, they in 
turn should support our exhibitions. 

The W. B. H. Dowse silver challenge cup for the exhibitor 
securing the highest number of points in the competitive 
vegetable classes was awarded to Miss Marian Roby Case, 
of Weston, always a valued and consistent contributor to all 
our vegetable exhibitions. Would that we had more like her ! 

For the present year the classes for vegetables have been 
considerably reduced owing to much heavier offerings for 
plants and flowers. Your committee hopes that in succeed- 
ing years it will not be thought an unfair proportion, to allot 
vegetables one fourth of the amount to be offered in prem- 
iums. If we will do this and let the commercial growers feel 
that we are really interested in their improved varieties 
there will be a better feeling all around and this is bound to 
make for much larger and more attractive displays in our 



130 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

halls. During the past season minor awards were made to 
several novelties but in no case were these considered 
superior to existing varieties. 

William N. Craig, Chairman. 



Report of the Committee on Children's Gardens 

We are very pleased to report a continued interest in the 
children's exhibitions. While the number of entries in 1924 
was not so large as some previous years, the quality and 
arrangement improve every year, which largely accounts 
for not so many entries in each class, they have learned they 
must have quality. During the exhibition we held a meeting 
for the teachers and instructors, to talk over the prizes 
offered and make suggestions as to how we could improve the 
schedule for 1925 to create more interest. 

Through the generosity of our President, Mr. A. C. Bur- 
rage, a fifty dollar cup is offered for a flower garden. We 
were very fortunate to have Miss Marian R. Case on our 
committee for when I expressed a wish for more money to 
enable us to increase our prize list, she very kindly gave us 
$100. Your committee feel that if we can reach the children 
and create an interest in horticulture we are not only guiding 
them to a life of real pleasure, but also developing them phy- 
sically, teaching them not to destroy plant life and making 
our towns and country more beautiful and making the chil- 
dren better citizens. 

James Wheeler, Chairman. 







^2 



=2 






OS 



Membership in the Massachusetts 
Horticultural Society 

The constitution of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society 
fixes the annual dues at $2.00. For many years it has been 
customary to charge an admission fee of $10.00, but by vote 
of the Trustees this requirement has been set aside for the 
entire year of 1925. Until the end of this year the only charge 
to new members will be $2.00, although this sum does not 
cover the cost to the Society of the publications which they 
will receive. 

Life membership is obtained by paying the sum of $50.00, 
no further charge ever being required. Annual members who 
have paid the entrance fee of $10.00 in past years may become 
life members by paying $40.00 additional. 

All members receive an identification card, which should 
be presented when books are borrowed from the library. 

Any man or woman in any part of the country who is 
properly endorsed may make application for membership. 
New members are needed in order to increase the influence of 
the Society, and to broaden the scope of its work. 

Application blanks may be obtained by writing to 

The Secretary, 

Horticultural Hall, 
Boston, Mass. 

Note : — The secretary is glad to have present members send 
in the names of friends who might like to become enrolled. 



132 



Necrology 

The following is a list of the members of the Massachusetts 
Horticultural Society whose deaths have been reported during 
the year 1924: 

Thomas Allen 
John W. Barber 
Albert Bresee 
Montague Chamberlain 
Norris F. Comley 
Thomas N. Cook 
Arthur N. Cooley 
Charles F. Curtis 
Mrs. Nathan P. Cutler 
Mrs. Albert M. French 
S. W. French 
Mrs. John L. Gardner 
Miss Eliza M. Gill 
Mrs. Thomas Hawken 
Miss Mary C. Hewett 
Miss Louisa P. Loring 
Howard Marston 
Frederick Mason 
Laban Pratt 
Andrew W. Preston 
Miss Ruth G. Rich 
Henry S. Shaw 
John C. Vaughan 
Charles Whittemore 
Ralph B. Williams 
Mrs. R. C. Winthrop, Jr. 

133 



Members of the Massachusetts Horticultural 

Society 

Members and correspondents of the Society and all other persons 
who may know of deaths, changes of residence, or other circumh x 
stances showing that the following lists are inaccurate in any par- 
ticular, will confer a favor by promptly communicating to the 
Secretary the needed corrections. 

HONORARY MEMBERS 



1900 Dr. Henry S. Pritchett, New York. 

1900 Albert Viger, President of the National Society of Horticul- 
ture of France, Paris. 

CORRESPONDING- MEMBERS 



1921 J. F. Bailey, Director of the Botanic Gardens, Adelaide, South 

Australia. 
1889 Dr. L. H. Bailey, Ithaca, N. Y. 
1875 Professor William J. Beal, Amherst, Mass. 
1911 W. J. Bean, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, England. 
1918 Desire Bois, Paris, France. 

1922 Joseph Edgar Chamberlin, Boston. 
1918 Leon Chenault, Orleans, France. 

1921 F. J. Chittenden, F. L. S., R. H. S. Gardens, Surrey, England. 

1921 Alister Clark, Glenara, Bulla, Victoria, Australia. 

1921 Dr. L. Cockayne, Wellington, New Zealand. 

1911 John Dunbar, Park Department, Rochester, N. Y. 

1887 Sir W. T. Thiselton Dyer, K.C.M.G., F.R.S., "Whitcombe," 
Gloucester, England. 

1921 W. R. Dykes, Secretary of the Royal Horticultural Society, 
London, England. 

1918 William C. Egan, Highland Park, 111. 

1900 Dr. Beverly T. Galloway, Department of Agriculture, Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

1918 Professor N. E. Hansen, Brookings, So. Dak. 

1911 Professor U. P. Hedrick, New York Agricultural Experiment 
Station, Geneva, N. Y. 

134 



MEMBERS OF THE MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 135 

1907 Augustine Henry, F.L.S., M.R.I.A., Professor of Forestry, 
College of Science, Dublin, Ireland. 

1919 Lt.-Col. Sir George Holford, Tetbury, Gloucestershire, Eng- 
land. 

1906 Senor Don Salvador Izquierdo, Santiago, Chile. 

1918 Mrs. Francis King, Alma, Mich. 

1921 C. E. Lane-Poole, Conservator of Forests, Perth, Western 
Australia. 

1911 Emile Lemoine, Xancy, France. 

1918 J. Horace McFarland, Harrisburg, Pa. 

1921 J. H. Maiden, I.S.O., F.R.S., F.L.S., Turramurra, Sydney, 
New South Wales. 

1875 T. C. Maxwell, Geneva, N. Y. 

1911 Wilhelm Miller. Detroit, Mich. 

1898 Sir Frederick W. Moore, Glasnevin, Dublin, Ireland. 

1918 Dr. George T. Moore, Director of the Missouri Botanical Garl 

den, St. Louis, Mo. 
1887 Sir Daniel Morris, C.M.G., D.S.C., M.A., F.L.S., Boscombe, 
England. 

1919 Seraphin Joseph Mottet, Verrieres-le-Buisson (Seine-et- 

Oise, France. 

1912 C. Harman Payne, Catford, England. 

1906 Lt.-Col. Sir David Prain, CLE., C.M.G., F.R.S., Putney, 

London S. W., England. 
1894 Cavaliere Enrico Ragusa, Palermo, Sicily. 
1906 Dr. Henry L. Ridley, C.M.G., F.R.S., Kew, England. 

1898 Benjamin Lincoln Robinson, Ph.D., Curator of the Gray 
Herbarium of Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. 

1875 William Robinson, East Grinstead, Sussex, England. 

1921 Leonard Rodway, C.M.G., Goverment Botanist and Secre- 
tarj*, Botanic Gardens, Hobart, Tasmania. 

1919 Eugene Schaettel, Paris, France. 

1921 David Tannock, Superintendent, Botanic Gardens, Dunedin, 
New Zealand. 

1893. Professor William Trelease, University of Illinois, Urbana, 

Illinois. 
1921 Jacques de Vilmorin. Paris, France. 

1912 Professor Hugo de Vries, University of Amsterdam, Amster- 
dam, Holland. 
1918 F. Gomer Waterer, Bagshot, Surrey, England. 
1894 William Watson, Kew, England. 



136 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

1919 J. C. Williams, Gorran, Cornwall, England. 
1906 Miss E. Willmott, Essex, England. 
1911 E. H. Wilson, Jamaica Plain, Mass. 
1921 Gurnet Wilson, F.L.S., Richmond, Surrey, England. 
1901 Professor L. Wittmack, Seeretaiy of the Roj^al Prussian 
Horticultural Society, Berlin. 



LIFE MEMBERS 



1924 Abbott. Mrs. Gordon. Man- 
chester. 

1899 Adams. Mrs. Charles Fran- 
cis, South Lincoln. 

1907 Adams, George E., Kings- 
ston, R. I. 

1897 Adams, Henry Saxton, Ja- 
maica Plain. 

1899 Agassiz, Mrs. George R.. 
Yarmouthport. 

1922 Alexandre, Mrs. John E.. 
Lenox. 

1894 Allen, Hon. Charles EL, 
Lowell. 

1916 Allen, Edward Ellis. Water- 
town. 

1905 Allen, Mrs. Sarah R., Wil- 
mington. 

1921 Allison. Frank H., Auburn- 
dale. 

1914 Ames, Mrs. F. L.. North 
Easton. 

1899 Ames, John S.. North Eas- 
ton. 

1894 Ames. Oakes, North Easton. 

1899 Ames, Oliver, North Easton. 

1867 Amory. Frederic, Boston. 

1924 Amory, Mrs. Robert, Read- 
ville. 

1020 Andersen, Peter, Woburn. 

1S96 Anderson, George M., Mil- 
ton. 

1899 Anderson, Larz, Brookline. 

1911 Anderson. William. South 
Lancaster. 

1924 Andrews, Col. James M.. 
Brookline 

1871 Appleton, Hon. Francis H., 
Boston. 



1914 Appleton, Francis R., New 
York, N. Y. 

1913 Appleton, Henry Saltonstall. 

Boston. 

1914 Apthorp. Mrs. Harrison 0.. 

Milton. 

1900 Arnold, Mrs. George Fran- 

cis, Brookline. 
1894 A_sh, John. Pomfret Centre, 

Conn. 
1890 Atkins, Edwin F., Belmont. 
1924 Atkins. Mrs. Edwin F., Jr.. 

Belmont. 
1899 Aver, James B., Boston. 

1912 Bache, James S.. Wayland. 

1905 Backer, Clarence A.. Mel- 
rose. 

1914 Bacon. Miss E. S., Jamaica 
Plain. 

1924 Bacon. Dr. Gorham, Yar- 
mouthport. 

1924 Bacon, Mrs. Gorham, Yar- 
mouthport. 

1905 Badger. Walter I., Boston. 

1924 Bailey. Irving L.. Xorthboro. 

1902 Bailey. Robert M.. Dedhani. 

1902 Baker, Clifton P.. Boston. 

1901 Baker, James E.. South Lin- 

coln. 

1904 Balch, Joseph. Boston. 
1909 Baldwin, Frank F„ Ashland. 

1905 Barnard, George E., Ips- 

wich. 

1866 Barnes, Walter S., Brook- 
line. 

1898 Barr, John, South Natick. 

1917 Barrett. Mrs. William Emer- 
son, West Xewton. 



137 



138 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 



1897 Barry, John Marshall, Bos- 
ton. 

1901 Bartlett, Miss Mary F., Bos- 
ton. 

1914 Bartol, Dr. John W._, Bos- 

ton. 

1915 Bartsch, Hermann H., Wav- 

erley. 

1901 Bates, Miss Mary D., Ips- 
wich. 

1915 Bauernfeind, John, Medford. 

1899 Baylies, Walter C, Boston. 

1914 Beal, Mrs. Boylston, Boston. 

1891 Becker, Frederick C, Cam- 
bridge. 

1876 Beckford, Daniel R., St., 
Dedham. 

1894 Beebe, E. Pierson, Boston. 

1890 Beebe, Franklin H., Boston. 

1905 Bemis, Frank B. ; Boston. 

1914 Bemis, Mrs. Frank B., Bos- 
ton. 

1899 Bigelow, Albert S., Boston. 

1914 Bigelow, Charles, Newton- 
ville. 

1899 Bigelow, Joseph S., Cohas- 
set. 

1899 Bigelow, Dr. William Stur- 
gis, Boston. 

1899 Black, George N., Boston. 

1885 Blake, Mrs. Arthur W., 
Brookline. 

1914 Blake, Benjamin S., Auburn- 
dale. 

1897 Blake, Edward D., Boston. 

1919 Blake, Hallie C, Lexington. 

1924 Blake, Mrs. J. A. L., Boston. 

1919 Blake, Kenneth Pond, Lex- 
ington. 

1918 Blanchard, Archibald, Bos- 
ton. 

1921 Blood, Charles 0., Lynnfield 
Center. 

1921 Blood, Mrs. Charles O., 
Lynnfield Center. 



1908 Blood, Eldredge H., Swamp- 
scott. 

1905 Boardman, Miss. Eliza D., 
Boston. 

1914 Boit, Miss Elizabeth E., 
Wakefield. 

1924 Bosworth, Miss Mary E., 
Boston. 

1883 Bowditch, James H., Boston. 

1894 Bowdit ch, Nathaniel I., 

Framingham. 
1877 Bowditch, William E., Grove 

Hall. 

1913 Bracket!, C. Henry B., So. 

Natick. 
1924 Bradley, Mrs. J. D. Cam- 
eron, Boston. 

1914 Brandegee, Mrs. Edward D., 

Brookline. 

1873 Breck, Charles H., Boston. 

1900 Breck, Joseph Francis, Bos- 
ton. 

1914 Breck, Luther Adams, New- 
ton. 

1902 Breed, Edward W., Clinton. 

1914 Brewer, Edward M., Milton. 

1914 Brewer, Joseph, Milton. 

1918 Brewer, William C, Boston. 

1919 Briggs, George E., Lexing- 

ton. 

1910 Briggs, Mrs. George R,, Ply- 
mouth. 

1897 Briggs, William S., Lincoln. 

1873 Brigham, William T., Hono- 
lulu, Hawaii. 

1909 Brooke, Edmund G., Jr., 
Providence, R, I. 

1914 Brooks, Henry G., Milton. 

1912 Brooks, Walter D., Milton. 

1909 Brown, Mrs. John Carter, 
Providence, R. I. 

1907 Brush, Charles N., Boston. 

1919 Buff, Louis F., Jamaica 
Plain. 



LIFE MEMBERS 



139 



190G B u i 1 1 a. Vincent, Newton 

Upper Falls. 
1914 Buiiard, Alfred M., Milton. 

1922 Bullard. Mrs. William Nor- 

ton, Boston. 

1918 Burgess, George Arthur, 

Beach Bluff. 

1920 Burgess, William EL Lex- 

ington. 
1897 Burlen, William EL East 
Holliston. 

1895 Burnett, Harry, Boston. 
1911 Burnett, John T., Boston. 
1911 Burnett, Robert M., South- 
borough. 

1914 Burnham, Miss Helen C 

Boston. 
]909 Burr, I. Tucker. Readville. 

1906 Burrage, Albert C, Boston. 

1919 Burrage, Mrs. Albeit C, 

Boston. 
1918 Burrage, Albert C, Jr., 

Hamilton. 
1918 Burrage, Charles D. Boston. 

1921 Burrage, Harry L.. Boston. 
1918 Burrage, Russell, Beverly 

Farms. 

1907 Butterworth, George Will- 

iam, South Framingham. 
1906 Butterworth, J. Thomas, So. 

Framingham. 
1921 Butterworth, Miss Rachel, 

Framingham. 
1905 Buttriek. Stedman, Concord. 

1902 Cabot, George E., Boston. 
1914 Cabot, Henrv B., Chestnut 
Hill. 

1923 Cabot. Mrs. Richard C. 

Cambridge. 

1896 Cameron, Robert, Ipswich. 
1913 Campbell. Chester I., Bos- 
ton. 

1891 Campbell, Francis, Cam- 
bridge. 



1899 Casas, W. B. de las, Maiden. 
1911 Case, Miss Marian Roby, 
Weston. 

1918 Ckalifoux, Mrs. H. L.. Prides 

Crossing. 
1873 Chamberlain, Chauncy AY., 
Boston. 

1920 Chandler, Joseph Everett, 

Boston. 

1924 Chany, John, Boston. 

1903 Chapman, John L., Beverly 
Farms. 

1917 Chase, H. F.. Andover. 

1909 Chase, Philip Putnam, Mil- 
ton. 

1923 Choate, Miss Mabel, Stock- 

bridge. 

1921 Chubbuck, William H., Mat- 

tapan. 
1876 Clapp, Edward B.. Dorches- 
ter. 

1919 Clapp, Robert P., Lexington. 
1896 Clark, B. Preston. Boston. 
1907 Clark. Herbert A.. Belmont. 
1890 Clark, J. Warren. Millis. 
1919 Clark, William Edwin. 

Sharon. 

1922 Clarkson, Mrs. Banyer, Ty- 

ringham. 
1914 Clifford, Charles P.. Milton. 
1895 Clough, Mica j ah Pratt. 

Boston. 
1894 Cobb. John C. Boston. 
1906 Codman, Miss Catherine A.. 

West wood. 
1914 Codman, James M., Boston. 

1924 Codman, R. S., Boston. 
1903 Cogswell. Edward R., Brook- 
line. 

1914 Collins, William J., Boston. 
1917 Comley, Henry R., Boston. 
1921 Conant. Mrs. Nellie P., Bos- 
ton. 
1917 Converse. E. W.. Xewton. 



140 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 



1924 Converse, Myron F., Worces- 
ter. 

1914 Coolidge, Charles A., Bos- 
ton. 

1902 Coolidge, Harold J., Boston. 
1899 Coolidge, J. Randolph, Bos- 
ton. 
1924 Coonley, Howard, Milton. 

1919 Copeland, Miss E. Gertrude, 

Melrose. 

1914 Cotting, Mrs. Charles E., 
Boston. 

1892 Cottle, Henry C, Roxbury. 

1917 Cotton, Miss Elizabeth A., 
Brookline. 

1914 Councilman, Dr. W. T v Bos- 
ton. 

1924 Coveny, James J., So. Bos- 
ton. 

1917 Cowey, S. R., York Harbor, 
Maine. 

1913 Cox, Simon F., Mattapan. 

1914 Crafts, Miss Elizabeth S., 

New York, N. Y. 

1920 Craig, Mrs. Helen M., Bos- 

ton. 

1924 Craig, Kenneth, Brattleboro, 
Vt. 

1901 Craig, William Nicol, Wey- 
mouth. 

1924 Cram, Robert Nathan, Bos- 
ton. 

1917 Crane, Charles R., New 
York, N. Y. 

1917 Crane, Mrs. R. T., Jr., Chi- 
cago, 111. 

1891 Crawford, Dr. Sarah M., 
Newton Centre. 

1924 Crocker, Mrs. Edgar, Cam- 
bridge. 

1924 Crocker, Mrs. George U., 
Boston. 

1881 Crosby, J. Allen, Jamaica 
Plain. 



1914 Crosby, Mrs. S. V. R., Bos- 
ton. 

1901 Cross, Alfred Richard, North 

Cohasset. 
1921 Crowninshield, Benjamin 
W., Marblehead. 

1921 Crowninshield, Francis B., 
Boston. 

1921 Crowninshield, Mrs. Francis 

B., Boston. 

1909 Cumner, Mrs. Nellie B., Bos- 
ton. 

1899 Curtis, Charles P., Boston. 

1875 Curtis, Joseph H., Boston. 

1924 Curtis, Mrs. Richard C, 
Boston. 

1920 Curtiss, Frederic Haines,- 
Boston. 

1906 Cutler, Mrs. Charles F., Bos- 
ton. 

1919 Cutler, Clarence H., Lexing- 
ton. 

1922 Cutler, Mrs. N. P., Newton. 
1924 Cutler, Miss Sally A., New- 
ton. 

1903 Cutler, Judge Samuel R., 
Revere. 

1897 Damon, Frederick W., Ar- 
lington. 
1908 Dane, Ernest B., Brookline. 

1908 Dane, Mrs. Ernest B., Brook- 

line. 

1919 Danforth, Joseph A., Dan- 
vers. 

1899 Daniels, Dr. Edwin A., Bos- 
ton. 

1909 Danielson, Mrs. DeForest, 

Boston. 

1902 Davis, Mrs. Arthur E., 

Dover. 
1913 Davis, Bancroft Chandler, 

Washington, D. C. 
1889 Davis, Frederick S., Boston. 



LIFE MEMBERS 



141 



1916 Davis, Miss Helen I., Lynn- 

field Centre. 
1914 Davis, Livingston, Milton. 
1909 Dawson, Henry Sargent, 

Holliston. 
1905 Day, Henry B., Boston. 

1917 Day, Mrs. Mary E., Newton. 
1921 De Nave, Paul, Wellesley. 
1873 Denny, Clarence H., Boston. 

1924 De Normandie, James 2d, 
Boston. 

1924 Dexter, Charles 0., New 
Bedford. 

1917 Dexter, George T., Boston. 

1904 Dexter, Gordon, Beverly 
Farms. 

1904 Dexter, Philip, Boston. 

1924 Dexter, Mrs. William, Man- 
chester. 
Dexter, William, Manches- 
ter. 



1924 

1924 Dickerman, Frank E., Bos 

ton. 
Dodd, Dexter T., Hudson. 



1921 
1924 



A., Hyde 



Dodd, Mrs. E 

Park. 
Dodge, Mrs. Edwin Sherrill, 

Westwood. 
Doig, John S., Barrington, 

R, I. 



1922 

1924 

1924 Donahue, Thomas F., New 

1896 



ton Lower Falls. 
Donald, William, Cold 
Spring Harbor, N. Y. 

1900 Donaldson, James, Roxbury. 

1897 Dorr, George B., Bar Har- 
bor, Me. 

1907 Doten, Scott T., Acton. 

1914 Douglass, Alfred, Brookline. 

1917 Downs, Jere Arthur, Win- 
chester. 

1910 Downs, William, Chestnut 
Hill. 

1917 Dowse, Charles F., Boston. 



1893 Dowse, William B. H., Bos- 
ton. 

1917 Draper, B. H., Bristow, 
Hopedale. 

1920 Draper, Eben S., Hopedale. 
1897 Dumaresq, Herbert, Centre 

Harbor, N. H. 

1899 Duncan, James L., New 
York, N. Y. 

1902 Duncan, John W., Spokane, 
Wash. 

1896 Dunlap, James H., Nashua, 
N. H. 

1915 Dunn, Stephen Troyte, F.L. 
S., F.R.G.S., Twickenham, 
Eng. 

1915 Dupee, William Arthur, Mil- 
ton. 

1909 Dupuv, Louis, Whitestone. 
L. I., N. Y. 

1880 Dutcher, Frank J., Hope- 
dale. 

1917 Dutcher, Miss Grace M., 

Hopedale. 
1902 Dyer, Herbert H., Cam- 
bridge. 

1912 Eaton, Harris D., South- 
borough. 

1918 Eccleston, Douglas, Beverly 

Farms. 
1911 Edgar, Mrs. Rose H., Wav- 

erley. 
1895 Eldredge, H. Fisher, Boston. 

1921 Ellery, William, Brookline. 

1921 Ellery, Mrs. William, Brook- 

line. 

1887 Elliott, Mrs. John W., Bos- 

ton. 

1888 Elliott, William H., Brigh- 

ton. 
1907 Emerson, Nathaniel W v M. 
D., Boston. 

1922 Emery, Miss Georgia H., 

Newton. 



142 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 



1917 Emmons, Mrs. R. W., 2nd, 

Boston. 
1894 Endicott, William, Boston. 
1899 Endicott, William C, Dan- 

vers. 
1919 Endicott, Mrs. William C, 

Danvers. 
1919 Endicott, Mrs. William C., 

Jr., Danvers. 
1919 Engstrom, Richard, Lexing- 
ton. 
1915 Ernst, Mrs. Harold C, 

Jamaica Plain. 
1924 Eustis, Mrs. Augustus H., 

Readville. 
1907 Eustis, Miss Elizabeth M., 

Brookline. 

1907 Eustis, Miss Mary St. 

Barbe, Brookline. 

1915 Fairbanks, Charles F., Bos- 
ton. 

1881 Fairchild, Charles, New 
York, N. Y. 

1877 Falconer, William, Pitts- 
burg, Pa. 

1884 Farlow, Lewis H., Boston. 

1896 Farnsworth, Mrs. William, 
Dedham. 

1915 Farquhar, Mrs. John K. M. 
L., Roxbury. 

1884 Farquhar, Robert, North 
Cambridge. 

1917 Farr, Mrs. Betty K., Stone- 
ham. 

1908 Fay, Wilton B., West Med- 

ford. 

1914 Fearing, George R., Jr., Bos- 
ton. 

1924 Fearing, George R., 3d, Bos- 
ton. 

1917 Fenno, Mrs. Pauline Shaw, 
Rowley. 

1917 Fessenden, Sewell H., Bos- 
ton. 



1883 Fewkes, Arthur H., Newton 
Highlands. 

1904 Finlayson, Duncan, Jamaica 
Plain. 

1892 Finlayson, Kenneth, Jamaica 

Plain. 

1901 Fisher, Peter, Ellis. 

1901 Fiske, Harry E., Boston. 

1894 FitzGerald, Desmond, Brook- 
line. 

1910 Flanagan, Joseph F., Bos- 
ton. 

1882 Fletcher, George V., Bel- 
mont. 

1917 Foot, Nathan Chandler, M., 
D., Cincinnati, Ohio. 

1914 Forbes, Alexander, M,D., 
Milton. 

1909 Forbes, Charles Stewart, 
Boston. 

1909 Forbes, Mrs. J. Malcolm, 
Milton. 

.1914 Forbes, W. Cameron, West- 
wood. 

1909 Forbes, Mrs. William H., 
Milton. 

1917 Fosdick, Lucian J., Boston. 

1914 Foster, Alfred D., Milton. 

1899 Foster, Charles H., W., Bos- 

ton. 

1924 Foster, Mrs. C. H. W., 
Charles River Village. 

1917 Foster, Miss Fanny, New- 
port, R. I. 

1885 Fottler, John, Jr., Dorches- 
ter. 

1914 Fraser, Charles E. K., South 
Natick. 

1893 French, W. Clifford, Pasa- 

dena, Calif. 

1917 Frishmuth, Miss Anna Bid- 
die, Boston. 

1903 Frost, Harold L., Arlington. 

1900 Frost, Irving B., Belmont. 
1922 Frost, Paul, Cambridge. 









LIFE MEMBERS 



143 



1899 Frothingham, Mrs. Louis A., 
North Easton. 

1923 Fuller, Hon. Alvan T., Bos- 

ton. 

1917 Gage, Mrs. Homer, Worces- 
ter. 

1920 Gale, Herbert E., Swamp- 

scott. 

1910 Galloupe, Frederic R., Bos- 

ton. 

1914 Gardiner, Robert H., Gardi- 
ner, Maine. 

1901 Gardner, Mrs. Augustus P., 
Hamilton. 

1895 Gardner, George P., Boston. 
1899 Gardner, John L., Boston. 
1899 Gardner, William Amory, 
Groton. 

1904 Garratt, Allan V., Holliston. 
1899 Gaston, William A., Boston. 

1911 Gavin, Frank D., Manches- 

ter. 

1910 Geiger, Albert, Jr., Brook- 

line. 

1911 Gill, Miss Adeline Bradbury, 

Boston. 

1911 Gill, Miss Eliza M., Boston. 

1887 Gill, George B., Boston. 

1919 Gilmore, George L., Lexing- 
ton. 

1907 Goddard, Samuel J., Fram- 
ingham. 

1922 Godfrey, Mrs. Hollis, Dux- 
bury. 

1921 Goodale, Geoffrey D., Bos- 

ton. 

1904 Goodale, Dr. Joseph L., Bos- 
ton. 

1899 Gray, Mrs. John C, Boston. 

1924 Green, Mrs. Edward C., Jr., 

Weston. 
1914 Greene, Edwin Farnham, 
Boston. 



1905 Greenough, Mrs. Charles P., 
Brookline. 

1912 Greenough, Mrs. David S., 
Jamaica Plain. 

1914 Grew, Edward W., Boston. 

1919 Griffin, Arthur E., Marion. 

1924 Guerineau, John P. A., Bos- 
ton. 

1897 Hale, James 0., Byfleld. 

1910 Hale, Mrs. Swinburne, New 
York, N. Y. 

1924 Hall, Mrs. George A., Brook- 
line. 

1912 Hall, Mrs. George G., Bos- 
ton. 

1899 Hall, Jackson E., Cam- 
bridge. 

1910 Halloran, Edward J., New- 
ton Highlands. 

1923 Hamblin, Stephen F., Lex- 

ington. 

1924 Hamilton, Mrs. George Lang- 

ford, Jamestown, R. I. 

1917 Hammond, Mrs. E. C, Au- 

burndale. 
1914 Harding, Charles L., Ded- 
ham. 

1918 Harding, Mrs. Edward, Plain 
1918 Harding, Mrs. Edward, 

Plainfield, N. J. 

1889 Hargraves, William J., West 
Roxbury. 

1887 Harris, Thaddeus William 
A. M., Littleton, N. H. 

1909 Hart, Francis R,, Boston. 

1914 Hartt, Arthur W., Brookline. 

1895 Harwood, George Fred, New- 
ton. 

1884 Hastings, Levi W., Brook- 
line. 

1894 Hatfield, T. D., Wellesley. ' 

1914 Havemeyer, Theodore A., 
New York, N. Y. 



144 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 



1922 Haynes, Edmund B., Bos- 
ton. 

1899 Hayward, George P., Chest- 
nut Hill. 

1914 Hayward, H. T., Franklin. 

1905 Head, Thomas W., Red 
Bank, N. J. 

1913 Heeremans, Frederic Lenox. 

1924 Heggie, James, West New- 
ton. 

1903 Hellier, Charles E., Marion. 

1888 Hemenway, Augustus, Bos- 
ton. 

1899 Hemenway, Mrs. Augustus, 
Boston. 

1914 Hemenway, Augustus, Jr., 

Boston. 
1884 Henshaw, Joseph P. B., Bos- 
ton. 

1899 Henshaw, Samuel, Cam- 

bridge. 
1924 Hetzer, Miss L. Louise, 
Groton. 

1901 Heurlin, Julius, South 

Braintree. 

1922 Heurlin, Victor J., South 
Braintree. 

1891 Heustis, Warren H., Bel- 
mont. 

1900 Higginson, Francis L., Bos- 

ton. 

1902 Higginson, Mrs. Henry L., 

Boston. 
1886 Hittinger, Jacob, Belmont. 
1895 Hoitt, Hon. Charles W., 

Scituate. 
1918 Holbrook, Miss Grace Ware, 

Brattleboro, Vt. 
1914 Hollingsworth, Valentine, 

Boston. 

1899 Hollingsworth, Z. T., Boston. 
1891 Holmesy Edward J., Boston. 

1900 Holt, William W., Norway, 

Maine. 



1899 Hood, Lady Ellen, Sheen, 
Surrey, Eng. 

1922 Hopkinton, Mrs. Charles, 
Manchester. 

1914 Hornblower, Henry, Boston. 

1922 Horsford, Miss Cornelia 

C. F., Cambridge. 

1888 Horsford, Miss Kate, Cam- 
bridge. 

1902 Hosmer, Oscar, Baldwins- 
ville. 

1907 Houghton, Clement S., 
Chestnut Hill. 

1913 Houghton, Mrs. Clement S., 
Chestnut Hill. 

1910 Houghton, Miss Elizabeth 
G., Boston. 

1872 Hovey, Charles H., South 
Pasadena, Cal. 

1884 Hovey, Stillman S., Woburn. 

1917 Howard, Everett C, Belcher- 
town. 

1904 Howard, Henry M., West 
Newton. 

1896 Howard, Joseph W., Somer- 
ville. 

1923 Howe, James M., Jr., Day- 

tona, Fla. 

1915 Howes, Mrs. Ernest, Boston. 
1917 Howes, Osborne, Chestnut 

Hill. 

1896 Hubbard, Charles Wells, 
Auburndale. 

1917 Hubbard, Eliot, Cambridge. 

1893 Hubbard, F. Tracy, Brook- 
line. 

1913 Huebner, H., Groton. 

1917 Hunnewell, Mrs. Arthur 
Wellesley. 

1912 Hunnewell, F. W., Cam- 
bridge. 

1893 Hunnewell, Henry Sargent, 
Wellesley. 

1912 Hunnewell, Mrs. Henry S., 
Wellesley. 



LIFE MEMBERS 



145 



1922 Hunnewell, Miss Louisa, 
Boston. 

1912 Hunnewell, Walter, Welles- 

ley. 

1917 Hunt, Miss Belle, Boston. 
1919 Hunt, William, Lexington. 
1880 Hunt, William H., Belmont. 
1924 Hurlbut, Byron Satterlee, 

Cambridge. 
1924 Hutson, Alfred R., Brighton. 

1919 I'Anson, George, Beverly 

Farms. 

1893 Jack, John George, East 

Walpole. 
1886 Jackson, Charles L., Boston. 
1914 Jackson, Mrs. James, Jr., 

Westwood. 

1884 Jackson, Robert T., Peter- 

borough, N. H. 

1916 Jahn, Paul H., East Bridge- 
water. 

1916 Jahn, William 0., East 
Bridgewater. 

1902 James, Ellerton, Milton. 

1902 James, Mrs. Ellerton, Mil- 
ton. 

1913 Jeffries, John, 5th, Philadel- 

phia, Pa. 
1899 Jeffries, William A., Boston. 
1865 Jenks, Charles W., Bedford. 
1905 Johnson, Arthur S., Boston. 

1921 Johnson, C. B., Woburn. 

1914 Johnson, Edward C, Boston. 

1885 Johnson, J. Frank, Maiden. 

1922 Jones, Miss Eleanor P., 

Haverhill. 
1897 Jones, Dr. Mary E., Boston. 
1922 Judd, William H, Jamaica 

Plain. 

1920 Keith, Simeon C, Brookline. 

1897 Kellen, William V., Boston. 

1898 Kelsey, Harlan P., Salem. 



1891 Kendall, Dr. Walter G., At- 
lantic. 

1898 Kennard, Frederic H., New- 

ton Centre. 

1909 Kennedy, Harris, M.D., Mil- 

ton. 

1923 Keyes, Mrs. Charles, Groton. 

1905 Keyes, Mrs. Emma Mayer, 

New York. 

1891 Keyes, John M., Concord. 

1889 Kidder, Charles A., South- 
borough. 

1910 Kidder, Mrs. Henry P., 

Meadville, Pa. 
1880 Kidder, Nathaniel T., Mil- 
ton. 

1903 Kimball, Richard D., Wa- 

ban. 

1924 King, Mrs. Henry P., Boston. 

1899 Kinney, H. R., Worcester. 

1906 Kinnicutt, Mrs. Leonard P., 

Worcester. 

1904 Kirkland, Archie Howard, 

Reading. 

1899 Lamb, Horatio A., Boston. 

1913 Lancaster, Dr. Walter B., 

Newton Centre. 

1924 Lane, Mrs. G. M., Manches- 
ter. 

1899 Lanier, Charles, Lenox. 

1917 Lapham, Henry G., Brook- 
line. 

1920 Lauriat, Charles E., Jr., 
West Newton. 

1895 Lawrence, Amos A., New 
York, N. Y. 

1873 Lawrence, John, Groton. 

1899 Lawrence, Rt. Rev. William, 
Boston. 

1914 Lee, George C, Westwood. 
1880 Leeson, Hon. Joseph R., 

Newton Center. 
1920 Leigh, Mrs. George Taylor, 
North Cohasset. 



146 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 



1902 Leighton, George B., Mon- 

adnock, N. H. 

1914 Leland, Lester, Boston. 
1914 Leland, Mrs. Lester, Boston. 
1924 Lenk, Walter E., Belmont. 
1924 Lewis, Mrs. Herman E., 
Haverhill. 

1903 Libby, Charles W., Medford. 

1917 Liggett, Louis K., Chestnut, 

Hill. 

1922 Linder, John Farlow, Can- 

ton. 

1923 Lippincott, Arthur H., Stock- 

bridge. 

1899 Locke, Isaac H., Belmont. 

1891 Lodge, Richard W., Red- 
lands, Cal. 

1897 Loomis, Elihu G., Boston. 

1899 Loring Augustus P., Boston. 

1919 Loring, Augustus P., Jr., 
Boston. 

1914 Loring, Miss Katharine P., 
Prides Crossing. 

1923 Loring, Mrs. Lindsley, West- 

wood. 
1919 Loring, Mrs. Rosamond B., 

Boston. 
1896 Loring, William Caleb, 

Prides Crossing. 

1924 Lothrop, Francis Bacon, 

Manchester. 

1924 Lothrop, Mrs. W. S. H., Bos- 
ton. 

1921 Loveless, Alfred J., Lenox. 

1899 Lowell, Abbott Lawrence, 
Cambridge. 

1902 Lowell, Miss Amy, Brook- 

line. 

1903 Lowell, James A., Boston. 

1904 Lowell, Miss Lucy, Boston. 
1899 Luke^ Otis H., Brookline. 
1895 Lunt, William W., Hing- 

ham. 

1918 Lyman, Arthur, Boston. 
1914 Lyman C. Frederic, Boston. 



1895 Lyman, George H., Boston. 

1924 Lyman, Mrs. George H., 
Boston. 

J 898 Mabbett, George, Plymouth. 

1919 McGregor, Frank J., New- 

bury port. 
1912 McKay, Alexander, Jamaica 
Plain. 

1922 McKee, Mrs. William L., 

Boston. 

1923 McKelvey, Mrs. Charles W., 

Orange, N. J. 
1911 McKenzie, Donald, Chest- 
nut Hill. 

1920 Manda, Joseph, West 

Orange, N. J. 

1884 Manda, W. A., South Orange, 
N. J. 

1890 Manning, A. Chandler, Wil- 
mington. 

1887 Manning, J. Woodward, 
Cleveland, Ohio. 

1884 Manning, Warren H., Cam- 
bridge. 

1924 Marchant, A. H., Winchester. 
1909 Marlborough, James, Tops- 
field. 

1876 Marshall, Frederick F., 
Everett. 

1917 Martin, Edwin S., Chestnut 
Hill. 

1899 Mason, Miss Ellen F., Bos- 
ton. 

1919 Mason, Miss Fanny P., Bos- 
ton. 

1922 Mason, Henry Lowell, Bos- 
ton. 

1914 Mathews, Miss Elizabeth 
Ashby, Newton Center 

1901 Matthews, Nathan, Boston. 

1906 Maxwell, George H., New- 
ton. 

1924 May, Frederick Goddard, 
Groton. 



LIFE MEMBERS 



147 



1917 Mead, Francis V., West 
Somerville. 

1917 Header, H. E., Dover, N. H. 

1902 Melvin, George, South Fram- 
ingham. 

1905 Meredith, J. Morris, Tops- 
field. 

1919 Merriam, Edward P., Lex- 
ington. 

1881 Merriam, Herbert, Weston. 

1917 Methven, James, Brookline. 

1884 Metivier, James, Waltham. 

1922 Mezit, Peter J., Weston. 

1924 Milbank, Mrs. Albert G., 
New York, N. Y. 

1914 Miller, Peter M., Mattapan. 
1924 Miller, Mrs. W. D., Ash- 

burnham. 

1888 Milmore, Mrs. Joseph, Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

1917 Mink, Oliver W., Boston. 

1915 Minot, Mrs. Charles S., 

Readville. 

1896 Montgomery, Alexander, 

fiadley. 
1902 Montgomery, Alexander, Jr., 

Hadley. 
1881 Moore, John H., Concord. 

1897 Morgan, George H., New 

York, N. Y. 

1914 Morgan, Mrs. J. P., Jr., 
New York, N. Y. 

1913 Morison, Robert S., Cam- 
bridge. 

1899 Morse, John T., Boston. 

1909 Morse, John Torrey, 3d., 

Boston. 

1910 Morse, Lewis Kennedy, Bos- 

ton. 

1913 Morse, Robert C, Hyde 

Park. 

1914 Morss, Charles A., Chestnut 

Hill. 
1914 Morss, Mrs. Charles A., 
Chestnut Hill. 



1902 Morton, James H., Hunting- 
ton, N. Y. 

1896 Moseley, Charles H., Rox- 
bury. 

1896 Moseley, Frederick Strong, 

Newburyport. 

1921 Motley, Mrs. Thomas, Jr., 
Hyde Park. 

1914 Munroe, Howard M., Lex- 
ington. 

1900 Murray, Peter, Fairhaven. 

1897 Mutch, John, Waban. 

1924 Naber, Henry L. F., West 

Roxbury. 
1921 Nason, Thomas W., Boston. 
1917 Neal, James A., Brookline. 
1899 Nevins, Mrs. David, Methuen. 
1914 Newbold, Frederic R., New 

York, N. Y. 
1924 Newell, Mrs. Edward A., 

Concord. 
1874 Newman, John R., Boston. 
1874 Newton, Rev. William W., 

Pittsfield. 

1919 Nichols, Mrs. W. L., Brook- 

line. 
1895 Nicholson, William, Fram- 

ingham. 
1914 Nicholson, William R., 

Framingham. 
1924. Nickerson, William David, 

Haverhill. 
1906 Nickerson, William E., Bos- 
ton. 
1914 Norman, Mrs. Louisa P., 

Newport, R. I. 
1881 Norton, Charles W., Allston. 
1921 Norton, Miss Christine A., 

Medfield. 

1920 Norton, Harry A.^ Ayer's 

Cliff, Quebec, Canada. 

1921 O'Brien, John J., Boston. 
1912 O' Conner, John, Brookline. 



148 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 



1898 Olmste^d, Frederick Law, 

Brookline. 
1898 Orpet, Edward 0., Santa 

Barbara, Cal. 
1919 Osgood, Miss Alice J., Wel- 

lesley Hills. 
1921 Osgood, Dana, Hopedale. 

1917 Osgood, Miss Fanny C, 
Hopedale. 

1909 Page, George, Prides Cross- 
ing. 

1909 Page, George William, South 
Lincoln. 

1900 Page, Mrs. Henrietta, Bos- 
ton. 

1884 Paige, Clifton H., Dorches- 
ter. 

1924 Paine, Mrs. James L., Cam- 
bridge. 

1914 Paine, Robert Treat, 2d, 

Boston. 

1908 Parker, Augustine H., Dover. 

1913 Parker, Edgar, North Easton. 
1911 Parker, Edward, North 

Easton. 

1915 Parker, Miss Eleanor S., 

Bedford. 

1921 Parker, Mrs. Harriet Talbot, 

Lowell 
1917 Parkhurst, Lewis, Boston. 
1891 Parkman, Henry, Boston. 

1922 Parsons, Miss Mary, Lenox. 

1923 Patten, Harold J., Tewkes- 

bury. 

1914 Patten, Miss Jane B., South 

Natick. 

1924 Patterson, Morehead, South- 

ampton, N. Y. 
1924 Patterson, Mrs. Morehead, 
Southampton, N. Y. 

1909 Peabody, Francis, Boston. 
1909 Peabody, Mrs. Francis, Mil- 
ton. 



1899 Peabody, George A., Dan- 

vers. 
1907 Peirce, E. Allan, Waltham. 

1916 Peirce, Edward R., Welles- 

ley Farms. 
1915 Penn, Henry, Brookline. 

1917 Peterson, George H., Fair 

Lawn, N. J. 

1899 Pfaff, Col. Charles, South 

Framingham. 

1900 Phillips, John C, North 

Beverly. 
1899 Phillips, Mrs. John C, North 
Beverly. 

1899 Phillips, William, North 

Beverly. 
1895 Pickman, Dudley L., Boston. 

1902 Pickman, Mrs. Dudley L., 

Boston. 

1923 Pierce, Charles Sumner, Mil- 
ton. 

1881 Pierce, Dean, Boston. 

1898 Pierce, Mrs. F. A., Brook- 
line. 

1905 Pierson, Frank R., Tarry- 
town, N. Y. 

1914 Pingree, David, Salem. 

1919 Pocock, Frederick, Beverly 
Farms. 

1900 Pond, Preston, Winchester. 
1892 Porter, James C, Wollaston. 
1914 Pratt, Waldo E., Wellesley 

Hills. 

1898 Pray, James Sturgis, Cam- 

bridge. 

1903 Preston, Howard Willis, 

Providence, R. I. 
1911 Priest, Lyman F., Gleason- 
dale. 

1901 Proctor. Thomas E., Tops- 

field. 
1883 Purdie, George A., Welles- 
ley Hills. 

1899 Putnam, George, Boston. 

1900 Putnam, George J., Boston. 



LIFE MEMBERS 



149 



1924 Putnam, Mrs. William Low- 
ell, Manchester. 

1924 Pyle, Robert, West Grove, 
Pa. 

1886 Quinby, Hosea M., M.D., 
Worcester. 

1923 Quint, Harry, Boston. 

1914 Rackemann, Charles S., 
Readville. 

1924 Ramseyer, Mrs. A. F., 

Chestnut Hill. 

1889 Rand, Harry S., North Cam- 

bridge. 

1908 Rand, Miss Margaret A., 
Cambridge. 

1903 Rawson, Herbert W., Ar- 
lington. 

1882 Ray, James F., Franklin. 

1890 Raymond, Walter, Pasa- 

dena, Cal. 
3897 Rea, Frederic J., Norwood. 

1891 Read, Charles A., Manches- 

ter. 
1902 Reardon, Edmund, Cam- 
bridge. 

1892 Reardon, John B., Boston. 
1905 Remick, Frank W., Boston. 
1924 Rice, Charles, Lexington. 
1889 Rice, George C, Worcester. 

1893 Rich, Miss Ruth G., Liver- 

more Falls, Me. 

1888 Rich, William E. C, Ocean 
Park, Me. 

1887 Rich, William P., Chelsea. 

1876 Richards, John J., Brook- 
line. 

1899 Richardson, Mrs. F. L. W., 
Charles River Village. 

1912 Richardson, H. H., Brook- 
line. 

1923 Richardson, Mrs. Jennie A., 
Waltham. 



1918 Richardson, William K, Na- 
hant. 

1900 Richardson, Dr. William L., 
Boston. 

1905 Riggs, William Allan, Au- 

burndale. 
1917 Riley, Charles E., Newton. 
1886 Ripley, Charles, Dorchester. 

1906 Robb, Russell, Boston. 

1909 Roberts, Miss Anna B., Bos- 
ton. 

1909 Robinson, Alfred E., Nor- 

folk, Va. 

1871 Robinson, John, Salem. 

1893 Robinson, Walter A., Ar- 
lington. 

1911 Rogers, Dexter M., Allston. 

1914 Rogers, Dudley P., Danvers. 

1921 Rogers, Miss Madelaine G., 

Brookline. 
1900 Roland, Thomas, Nahant. 

1922 Rose, Mrs. Edward, Chest- 

nut Hill. 

1910 Ross, Harold S., Hingham. 

1892 Ross, Henry Wilson, New- 

ton Center. 
1895 Rothwell, James E., Brook- 
line. 

1923 Rousmaniere, Mrs. E. S., 

Boston. 

1899 Roy, David Frank, Wake- 

field. 
1875 Russell, George, Woburn. 

1900 Russell, James S., Milton. 
1921 Russell, John L., Dedham. 

.1919 Ryder, Charles W., Newton- 
ville. 

1924 Sabine, John Lawrence, 

Groton. 

1893 Salisbury, William C. G., 

Brookline. 

1915 Saltonstall, Mrs. Caroline S., 

Milton. 
1912 Saltonstall, John L., Boston. 



150 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 



1912 Saltonstall, Mrs. John L., 

Topsfield. 
1924 Saltonstall, Mrs. Richard 

Middlecott, Chestnut Hill. 

1897 Sander, Charles J., Brook- 

line. 

1898 Sanger, Mrs. George P., Bos- 

ton. 

1922 Sargent, Miss Alice, Brook- 
line. 

1870 Sargent, Charles S., Brook- 
line. 

1902 Sargent, Charles Sprague, 
Jr., Cedarhurst, N. Y. 

1899 Sargent, Mrs. Francis W., 

Wellesley. 

1922 Sargent, Miss Georgiana, 

Lenox. 

1875 Saunders, Miss Mary T., 
Salem. 

1921 Schling, Max, New York, 
N. Y. 

1895 Sears, Miss Clara E., Bos- 
ton. 

1899 Sears, Dr. Henry F., Bos- 
ton. 

1899 Sears, Mrs. J. Montgomery, 
Boston. 

1923 Sedgwick, Mrs. Ellery, Bos- 

ton. 

1898 Sharp, Miss Helen, Boston. 
1914 Shattuck, Dr. Frederick C, 

Boston. 
1914 Shattuck, Mrs. Frederick C, 
Boston. 

1899 Shaw, Francis, Wayland. 

1924 Shaw, Hollis Hunnewell, 

Brookline. 

1924 Shaw, Mrs. Quincy A., Bos- 
ton. 

1899 Shaw, Mrs. Robert G., Brook- 
line. 

1901 Shea, James B., Jamaica 
Plain. 



1920 Shurtleff, Arthur A., Bos- 
ton. 

1901 Shurtleff, Josiah B., Revere. 

1893 Siebrecht, H. A., New Ro- 
chelle, N. Y. 

1917 Silber, Miss Charlotte G., 

Needham. 

1899 Sleeper, Henry Davis, Bos- 
ton. 

1903 Smiley, Daniel, Lake Mo- 
honk, N. Y. 

1888 Smith, Charles S., Lincoln. 
1919 Smith, Earnest E., Boston. 
1911 Smith, John L. ; Beach Bluff. 
1874 Snow, Eugene A., Allston. 
1899 Sohier, Col. William D., Bos- 
ton. 

1918 Spaulding, Miss Dora N., 

Boston. 

1908 Spaulding, John T., Boston. 

1908 Spaulding, William. S., Bos- 
ton. 

1897 Sprague, Isaac, Boston. 

1922 Sprague, Phineas W., Bos- 
ton. 

1884 Stearns, Charles H., Brook- 
line. 

1893 Stearns, Frank W., Boston. 

1896 Stedman, Henry R., M. D., 
Brookline. 

1914 Stevens, Mrs. Nathaniel, 
North Andover. 

1919 Stewart, George F., Wal- 

tham. 

1924 Stewart, Gordon P., Wal- 
tham. 

1924 Stewart, Irving H., Hyde 
Park. 

1918 Stimpson, Harry F., Chest- 
nut Hill. 

1901 Stone, Charles A., Newton. 

1889 Stone, Charles W., Boston. 

1910 Stone, Mrs. Francis H., So. 
Dartmouth. 

1914 Stone, Galen L., Brookline. 



LIFE MEMBERS 



151 



1896 Stone, Prof. George E., Am- 
herst. 

1914 Stone, J. Winthrop, Water- 
town. 

1914 Stone, Nathaniel H., Milton. 

1917 Storey, Moorfield, Boston. 
1905 Storrow, James J., Boston. 

1918 Stranger, David C, West 

Newbury. 

1905 Stratton, Charles E., Boston. 

1906 Strout, Charles S., Bidde- 

ford, Me. 
1914 Sturgis, Miss Evelyn R., 

Manchester. 
1902 Sturgis, Richard Clipston, 

Boston. 
1916 Sturtevant, Miss Grace, Wel- 

lesley Farms. 
1921 Sturtevant, Robert Swan, 

Wellesley Farms. 
1910 Sullivan, Martin, Jamaica 

Plain. 
1924 Sumner, Edward P., Shrews- 
bury. 

1912 Swan, Charles H., Jamaica 

Plain. 
1891 Sweet, Everell F., Boston. 

1916 Swett, Raymond W., New- 

ton. 
1904 Sylvester, Edmund Q., Bos- 
ton. 

1924 Taft, Mrs. Robert W., Provi- 
dence, R. I. 

1924 Taylor, Miss Laura, Haver- 
hill. 

1900 Taylor, Mrs. Thomas, Jr., 
Columbia, S. C. 

1913 Tedcastle, Mrs. Arthur W., 

Hyde Park. 

1917 Thacher, Miss Elizabeth B., 

Roxbury. 
1921 Thairlwall, William C, Bos- 
ton. 



1912 Thatcher, Arthur E., Hull's 

Cove, Me. 

1898 Thatcher, William, Brook- 

line. 
1900 Thayer, Mrs. Bayard, South 
Lancaster. 

1903 Thayer, Henry J., Boston. 

1899 Thayer, John E., South Lan- 

caster. 

1899 Thayer, Mrs. John E., South 
Lancaster. 

1899 Thayer, Mrs. Nathaniel, 
South Lancaster. 

1899 Thiemann, Hermann, Owos- 
so, Mich. 

1899 Thomas, W. B., Boston. 

1921 Thompson, Eben F., Wor- 

cester. 
1924 Thoron, Mrs. Ward, Dan- 

vers. 
1910 Thurlow, George C, West 

Newbury. 

1913 Thurlow, Winthrop H., West 

Newbury. 

1923 Titus, Mrs. Gertrude I., 

Swampscott. 

1924 Tobie, Mrs. Walter E., Port- 

land, Me. 

1896 Toppan, Roland W., Boston. 

1899 Tower, Miss Ellen, May, 
Lexington. 

1893 Trepess, Samuel J., Glen- 
cove, L. I., N. Y. 

1922 Tudor, Mrs. Henry D., Cam- 

bridge. 
1917 Tufts, Bowen, Medford. 
1910 Turner, Chester Bidwell, 

Stoughton. 

1914 Tyler, Charles H., Boston. 
1919 Tyndall, David, Brockton. 

1901 Underwood, Loring, Bel- 
mont. 



152 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 



1921 Van Baarda, P. J., North 
Cambridge. 

1919 Vander Voet, Christian, Ja- 
maica Plain. 

1921 Yaugkan, Mrs. Henry, South 
Berwick, Me. 

1899 Vaughan, William Warren, 
Boston. 

1881 Vinal, Miss Mary L., Somer- 
ville. 

1916 Wagstaff, Archibald, Welles- 
ley Hills. 

1876 Walcott, Henry P., M. D., 

Cambridge. 

1895 Waldo, C. Sidney, Jamaica 

Plain. 

1921 Walley, Mrs. Herbert H., 
Newton. 

1907 Walton, Arthur G., Wake- 
field. 

1902 Warburton, Ckatterton, Fall 
River. 

1912 Wardwell, Mrs. T. Otis, 

Haverhill. 

1891 Ware, Miss Mary L., Boston. 

1909 Warren, Bentley W., Boston. 

1881 Watson, Thomas A., Boston. 

1911 Waiters, W. F., Boston. 

1905 Webster, Edwin S., Chest- 
nut Hill. 

1911 Webster, Mrs. Edwin S., 
Chestnut Hill. 

1905 Webster, Frank G., Boston. 

1907 Webster, George H., Haver- 
hill. 

1896 Webster, Hollis, Cambridge. 
1905 Webster, Laurence J., Chest- 
nut Hill. 

1909 Weeks, Andrew Gray, Bos- 
ton. 

1902 Welch, Edward J., Dorches- 
ter. 



1911 Weld, Mrs. Charles G., 

Brookline. 
1917 Weld, Rudolph, Boston. 

1911 Weld, Mrs. Stephen M., Bos- 

ton. 

1912 Wellington, Mrs. Arthur W., 

Boston. 

1917 Wellington, William H., 
Boston. 

1882 West, Mrs. Maria L., Nepon- 
set. 

1919 Wheeler, Everett P., Rock- 
land. 

1889 Wheeler, James, Natick. 

1897 Wheeler, Wilfrid, Concord. 

1923 Wheelwright, Miss Mary C, 
Boston. 

1919 Whiteornb, Myron L., Haver- 
hill. 

1901 White, Mrs. Charles T., Bos- 
ton. 

1909 White, Harry K., Milton. 

1917 Whitehouse, Mrs. Francis 
M., Manchester. 

1905 Whitman, William, Brook- 
line. 

1891 Whitney, Arthur E., Win- 
chester. 

1921 Whitney, Byam, Boston. 

1891 Whitney, Ellerton P., Bos- 
ton. 

1921 Whitney, Geoffrey G., Mil- 
ton. 

1921 Wigglesworth, Mrs. Edward, 
Topsfield. 

1915 Wigglesworth, Frank, Mil- 
ton. 

1899 Wigglesworth, George, Mil- 
ton. 

1921 Wight, Mrs. Delano, Brook- 
line. 

1889 Wilde, Mrs. Albion D., Can- 
ton. 

1897 Wilkie, Edward A., Newton- 
ville. 



i:rz 1:11:11?.- 



153 



1898 Williams, Miss Adelia Coffin. 1914 

Roxbury. 
1924 Williams. * Mrs. C : : n e . .. 1911 

Washington. D. C 
: ' Williams,. rge Percy. 1920 

Boston. 

1899 Williams. John Davis. Bos- 1921 

ton. 
1905 Williams. Mrs. J. Bertram. 1905 

Cambridge. 
1905 Williams. Mrs. M oses , 1905 

Brookline. 1906 

1915 Wilson. E. H.. Jamaica 

Plain. 1920 

1911 Wilson. Fred A.. Xahant. | 1917 

1919 Wilson. James A.. Lexing- 

ton. ' 1921 

1881 Wilson. William Power. Bos- 
ton. ' 1919 
1921 Winkler. Edward. Wakefield. 
1917 Winslow. Arthur. Boston. 

1905 Winsor. Robert. Wt~::::. 

1920 Winter. Miss Hattie B.. 

Mansfield. 1921 

1906 Winter. Herman L.. Port- 

land. Me. 



Winthrop, rnville L.. 

Lenox. 
Winthroj Mrs. Robert, Ken 

York. X. Y. 
Wister, John C. Philadel- 

phia. Pa. 
Wollrath. Henry J.. Wal- 

tham. 
Woodberry. Miss E.. Ger- 
trude. Winter Hill. 
W o dbury. John. Boston. 
Woodward. Mrs. Samuel 

Bayard. Woreesrer. 
Worth! ey. L. H.. Arlington. 
Wright. George 3 Wafcer- 

f . ^tl 
Wyman. Richard M.. Fram- 

ingham. 
Wyman. Walton 3 l~:rth 

Abington. 
Wyman. Windsor H.. Xorth 

Abington. 

Yonng. Mrs '. _::":::> W.. 
Anbnrndale. 



ANNUAL MEMBERS 



Abbot, Miss Mary P., Harvard. 

Aborn, Mrs. Frank P., Swamp- 
scott. 

Aborn, Mrs. Charles Mortimer, 
Boston. 

Achorn, Dr. Ralph C, Boston. 

Adams, Charles F., Jamaica 
Plain. 

Adie, Mrs. Andrew, Chestnut 
Hill. 

Adie, James M., Peabody. 

Albee, Miss Isabel L., Wollaston. 

Alcock, John, New Bedford. 

Alden, Lester F., Chelmsford. 

Alexander, J. Herbert, East 
Bridge water. 

Alexander, J. K., East Bridge- 
water. 

Allen, Miss Annie E., Cambridge. 

Allen, Miss Eleanor W., Prince- 
ton. 

Allen, George L. L., Medfield. 

Allen, Miss Lizzie C, Newton- 
ville. 

Allen, Mrs. Nellie B., New York, 
N. Y. 

Ailing, Mrs. C. S., Gloucester. 

Almond, Robert B., Wellesley. 

Alves, Joseph, Brighton. 

Anderson, George V., East Mil- 
ton. 

Andrews, A. LeRoy, Ithaca, N. Y. 

Arendt, August, Arlington. 

Arlett, W. T., Oaklands, Calif. 

Arnold, Mrs. Harold G., West 
Roxbury. 

Arnott, Peter, Chestnut Hill. 

Aronson, Miss Lillian, Chelsea. 

Arrington, Luther B., Arlington. 

Arthur, M. Charles, Ipswich. 

Asmus, E. A., Belvidere, Calif. 

Atwill, Miss Elizabeth, West 
Roxbury. 



Atwood, Mrs. Frederick Allen, 

Boston. 
Aurelio, William G., Boston. 
Austin, Mrs. A. H., Ravenna, 

Ohio. 
Austin, Miss Edith, Marion. 
Austin, Mrs. Walter, Dedham. 
Auten, Andrew, Oberlin, Ohio. 

Babcock, Miss Mabel Keyes, Bos- 
ton. 
Bacon, Augustus, Roxbury. 
Badger, Arthur C., Chestnut Hill. 
Baily, Miss Jane Luce, Boston. 
Baker, Mrs. G. B., Chestnut Hill. 
Baker, Mrs. James G., Fairhaven. 
Balch, John Milton. 
Baldwin, George E., Mamaroneck, 

N. Y. 
Baldwin, Harry, Mamaroneck, 

N. Y. 
Baldwin, Roger S., Woodbury, 

Conn. 
Bancroft, Rev. James, Woods 

Hole. 
Bankhart, Mrs. Miriam S., 

Swampscott. 
Barber, Austin E., Hillsdale, 

Mich. 
Barnes, Miss Mary P., Hingham. 
Barnes, Parker T., Harrisburg, 

Pa. 
Barnes, Rowland H., Newton 

Highlands. 
Barnet, John, Sewickley, Pa. 
Barney, Mrs. Edward M., Lynn. 
Barney, Ernest A., Boston. 
Barron, Leonard, Garden City, 

N. Y. 
Barrows, Herbert C, Wilmington. 
Barry, Miss M. L., Wellesley 

Hills. 
Barry, Phillips, Groton. 



154 



ANNUAL MEMBERS 



155 



Bartlett, Mrs. James A., Maiden. 
Bartol, Mrs. J. W., Boston. 
Baskin, John, Marion. 
Batchelder, Mrs. I. H., Danvers. 
Bates, Miss L. E., Cambridge. 
Baxendale, Herbert, Canton. 
Beal, Robert Washburn, Boston. 
Beal, Thomas P., Jr., Boston. 
Bean, Mrs. Norwin S., Manches- 
ter, N. H. 
Beatrice, Charles A., Sharon. 
Beebe, Mrs. Frederic, Swamp- 

scott. 
Begg, George A., Sharon. 
Benedict, Mrs. Cornelia Golay, 

Machiasport, Me. 
Benedict, Francis G., Boston. 
Benedict, Mrs. George W., Dux- 
bury. 
Benedict, Mrs. William L., Dux- 
bury. 
Bennet, Edgar H., Springfield. 
Benson, Earl M., Wellesley. 
Benson, Miss Ethel, Dover. 
Benton, Mrs. Everett C, Cam- 
bridge. 
Berger, Miss Inngard, Wellesley. 
Berry, Mrs. James M., Everett. 
Best, Theodore H., Dorchester. 
Beveridge, Mrs. Henry L., Cam- 
bridge. 
Bickerton, Mrs. Florence W., 

Framingham. 
Bickford, Mrs. H. L. W., Boston. 
Bickford, Horace M., Sr., Sharon. 
Biddle, Miss E. W., Lenox. 
Billings, Mes. Arthur, So. Hing- 

ham. 
Binnian, Walter B., Cohasset. 
Bird, Miss Adelaide, Cambridge. 
Bird, Miss Harriet E., Cambridge. 
Bird, Miss Susan, Cambridge. 
Birnie, Miss Eliza P., Cambridge, 
Bisson, Ernest, Shrewsbury. 
Blackford, Mrs. Eliza B., Bos- 
ton. 
Blackmer, James W., Beverly. 
Blake, Charles S., Ashby. 
Blakely, Mrs. Fannie E., Boston 



Blanchard, Mrs. L. E., Somer- 

ville. 
Blanchard, Mrs. Victorine, Nor- 
way, Me. 
Blanche, Herbert M., Jamaica 

Plain. 
Blaney, Mrs. Dwight, Bar Har- 
bor, Me. 
Bliss, Mrs. Elmer J., Brighton. 
Blodget, Jesse M., Worcester. 
Blood, Arthur K., Lynn. 
Bloomfield, Miss Emily W., Win- 

throp. 
Blossom, Harold Hill, Dedham. 
Bogholt, Christian M., Newport, 

R. I. 
Bond, James, So. Lancaster. 
Bonnewitz, Lee R., Van Wert, 

Ohio. 
Borowski, Ernest H., Roslindale. 
Boutell, Albert A., Canton. 
Boutwell, Miss Edna, Woburn. 
Bowditch, Mrs. Ernest W., Mil- 
ton. 
Bowman, Mrs. K. F., Warrenton, 

Va. 
Bowman, Miss Mary E., Bedford. 
Boyd, James, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Boyd, R. S., So. Portland, Me. 
Boyle, Albert, Milton. 
Boyle, Charles F., Boston. 
Bradley, Miss Abby A., Hingham. 
Bradley, Miss Julia H., Fergus 

Falls, Minn. 
Brandt, Mrs. Charles H., Newton 

Centre. 
Breed, George A., Stockbridge. 
Brewer, Bertram, Cohasset. 
Brewer, D. Chauncey, Boston. 
Brewer, Robert D., Hingham. 
Bridges, Mrs. Luther W., Fram- 
ingham. 
Brien, Mrs. James, Needham. 
Brier, Mrs. C. E., Scituate. 
Brigham, Mrs. Clifford, Read- 

ville. 
Brigham, Henry H., East Orange, 

N. J. 
Briry, John F., Maiden. 
Brooks, Miss Sarah W., Concord. 



156 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 



Brotkerton, Wilbur, Detroit, 
Mick. 

Brown, Mrs. Arthur E., Wellesley 
Hills. 

Brown, Arthur J., Readville. 

Brown, Mrs. Charles A., Fram- 
ingham Center. 

Brown, Charles S., Boston. 

Brown, Chester F., Newton High- 
lands. 

Brown, Clark W., Ashland. 

Brown, Clifford, Wellesley. 

Brown, Miss Ethel C, Boston. 

Brown, Frederick D., Dedham. 

Brown, George C, Boston. 

Brown, Mrs. G., Winthrop, Chest- 
nut Hill. 

Brown, Thomas S., Cohasset. 

Brown, William H. ; Hyde Park. 

Browne, Mrs. Percy G., Win- 
throp. 

Brues, Mrs. C. T., Jamaica Plain. 

Brush, Horace D., Brookline. 

Bryant, Mrs. Henry F., Brook- 
line. 

Bryant, Mrs. Nanna Mattkews, 
Boston. 

Bullard, Tkeodore Vail, So. Or- 
leans. 

Bundy, F. E., Hblliston. 

Burdick, Mrs. Lottie E., Boston. 

Burger, Tkeodore E., Dover. 

Burgess, Harry E., Jackson, 
Mich. 

Burke, James D., Wellesley. 

Burke, Patrick W, Brookline. 

Burnhome, Mrs. M. S., Boston. 

Burtner, Rev. D. Emery, Lynn. 

Burton, Oscar A., M. D., Welles- 
ley. 

Butts, Mrs. C. G., Jamaica Plain. 

Byrkit,;Dr. Francis K., Wellesley. 

Cadick, Edgar, Wellesley Hills. 
Cameron, H. L., No. Cambridge. 
Campbell, Arthur H., Westmount, 

Can. 
Campbell, E. W., Boston. 
Campbell, James, So. Lancaster. 



Campbell, Robert R., Windsor, 

Vt. 
Camus, Emil, Boston. 

Cangiano, Michael, So. Hingham. 

Canning, William G. 

Carlquist, S. W., Lenox. 

Carpenter, A. J., Jamaica Plain. 

Carpenter, Mrs. Kathrine E., 
West Roxbury. 

Carpenter, Mrs. 0. W., Spring- 
vale, Me. 

Carpenter, Sanford I., Sharon. 

Carpenter, Thomas E., Jamaica 
Plain. 

Carr, Mrs. Arthur W., Bridge- 
water. 

Carroll, Mrs. C. H., Concord, 
N. H. 

Casey, Neil S., Melrose. 

Casey, William E., Melrose. 

Cass, Miss Hermina W., Melrose. 

Cass, J. Foster, Hyde Park. 

Castle, Andrew, No. Cambridge. 

Cathie, Harold G., Needham. 

Cavan, John P., Holliston. 

Chadbourn, E. R., Melrose. 

Chaffee, Mrs. Ralph C, New 
Haven, Conn. 

Chalmers, Arthur A., Amsterdam, 
N. Y. 

Chapin, C. H. B., Riverton, Conn. 

Chapin, 0. S., Boston. 

Chapman, Ernest A., Readville. 

Chase, A. H. St. C, Newton Cen- 
ter. 

Chase, Mrs. Charles C, Haver- 
hill. 

Chase, Mrs. Harriet Caverly, 
Belmont. 

Chase, John Carroll, Derry, N. H. 

Chase, Lewis E., Boston. 

Cheney, Mrs. Frederick E., Con- 
cord. 

Cheney, Robert F., Southborough. 

Christensen, Andrew, Stoneham. 

Christensen, Harold, Stoneham. 

Chute, Mrs. Arthur L., Boston. 

Claflin, Edward P., Attleboro. 

Clark, Frederick D., Toronto, 
Can. 



ANNUAL MEMBERS 



157 



Clark, Hubert Lyman, Worcester. 

Clark, Mrs. Jay, Jr., Worcester. 

Clark, W. 0., Chillicothe, Mo. 

Clarke, Daniel A., Fiskville, R. I. 

Clarke, Hermann F., Boston. 

Clarkson, Edward EL, Newbury - 
port. 

Clement, Mrs. Hazen, Wayland, 
Mass. 

Clements, Miss Annie J., Boston. 

Cleveringa, A. W., Wellesley 
Hills. 

Coale, Mrs. George 0. G., Boston. 

Cobb, Mrs. Charles K., Chestnut 
Hill. 

Cobb, F. S., Dedham. 

Cobb, Mrs. Morton E., Newton 
Center. 

Cochran, Miss Edith V., Cam- 
bridge. 

Cogger, Thomas, Melrose. 

Colby, Miss Frances E., Allston. 

Cole, Harry, Readville. 

Cole, William R., Amherst. 

Coles, James Fred, North Easton. 

Coles, Thomas, Hopedale. 

Collamore, Francis, East Bridge- 
water. 

Collier-Young, Mrs. C. M., Stone- 
ham. 

Colt, James D., Chestnut Hill. 

Colt, Mrs. J. D., Chestnut Hill. 

Comey, Arthur M., Cambridge. 

Conant, Mrs. William C, Weston. 

Condict, Mrs. Mason, Cambridge. 

Congdon, Miss Louise, New Bed- 
ford. 

Coolidge, Mrs. W. H., Magnolia. 

Cooper, Charles, Brookline. 

Cooper, Miss Gladys B., Maiden. 

Cooper, Mrs. W. E., Quincy. 

Copson, William A., Roslindale. 

Corbett, Mrs. Jeremiah J., Mai- 
den. 

Cotton, William M., Brighton. 

Coues, Mrs. Robert W., Cam- 
bridge. 

Covell, Mrs. Arthur J., Wakefield. 

Covitz, Miss Emma, Roxbury. 

Craig, Donald W., Weymouth. 



Crane, Mrs. Annie M., Sandwich. 
Crocker, Mrs. George G., Boston. 

Crocker, Joseph B., Chatham. 

Crombie, Miss Alberta J., New- 
ton Highlands. 

Crompton, Miss Mary A., Wor- 
cester. 

Crosbie, Mrs. George, Newton 
Center. 

Crosby, Miss Harriet L., Methuen. 

Cross, Robert F., Osterville. 

Crowell, C. B., Brattleboro, Vt, 

Cruickshank, George, Boston. 

Cullen, Martin J., Denver, Colo. 

Cummings, Miss Esther, Newton 
Highlands. 

Cummings, Miss Gertrude, Bos- 
ton. 

Cunningham, Mrs. Henry V., 
Magnolia. 

Cunningham, Miss Mary P., Bos- 
ton. 

Cunningham, Paul, Bolton. 

Curtis, Mrs. Agnes G., Brookline. 

Curtis, Allen, Boston. 

Curtis, Miss Catharine, Woburn. 

Curtis, Charles H., Jamaica 
Plain. 

Cushing, Mrs. Harvey, Brookline. 

Cushman, Miss Alice, Rockland. 

Cutler, Newell L., Newton Center. 

Cutter, Victor M., Newton. 

Dahl, Frederick William, Rox- 
bury. 

Dalton, Philip S., Milton. 

Damon, C. U., Portland, Ore. 

Damon, Ralph C, Ashby. 

Dana, Miss Grace, Fairhaven. 

Dana, Miss Mary Hurd, Brook- 
line. 

Darling, Edgar W., New Bedford. 

Darroeh, Harvey J., Boston. 

Davenport, Miss Blanche L., Bos- 
ton. 

Davies, Mrs. H. R., Jamaica 
Plain. 

Davis, Mrs. Charlotte A., Welles- 
ley Park. 

Davis, Miss Leslie N., Stoneham. 



158 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 



Dawson, Miss Laura B., Hollis- 
ton. 

Dean, Miss Dorothy, Newton. 

Dean, Mrs. Walter, Dedham. 

Delano, Mrs. George, Tiverton, 
R. I. 

Delano, Miss Julia, New Bedford. 

Dennett, Charles N., Amesbury. 

Dennis, Miss Emma J., Hingham. 

Dennison, Miss Edith, Melrose. 

des Granges, Donald, Hingham. 

Devens, Mrs. Clifford, West Rox- 
bury. 

Dickinson, Charles A., South 
Weymouth. 

Dickinson, Edward F., Billerica. 

Dickson, Arthur U., Woburn. 

Dizer, William E., East Wey- 
mouth. 

Dodd, Rev. E. A., Hyde Park. 

Dodge, Miss Agnes L., Melrose 
Highlands. 

Dolan, Harry F. R., Boston. 

Dolansky, Frank J., Lynn. 

Donald, James, Hingham. 

Dooley, Thomas P., Dorchester. 

Dorr, Miss Marion H., Newton 
Highlands. 

Douglas, Walter B., Belmont. 

Downer, Henry E., Poughkeepsie, 
N. Y. 

Dows, Azro M., Lowell. 

Drain, Brooks D., Amherst. 

Drew, Fred M. D., Boston. 

Dubois, Wilbur, Madisonville, 
Ohio. 

Duly Richard J., Beach Bluff. 

Dunbar, Howard L., South Wey- 
mouth. 

Duncan, A. C, St. Louis, Mo. 

Duncan, Robert, Chestnut Hill. 

Dunn, Mrs. Mary M., Dorchester. 

Dnnphe, Eugene M., Elmwood. 

Durfee, Mrs. W. C, Jamaica 
Plain. 

Dusseault, William F., East Bos- 
ton. 

Dutelle, Paul E., Newtonville. 

Dutton, Mrs. Warren H., Bed- 
ford. 



Dwyer, Charles, Weymouth. 

Eager, Miss Julia A., Boston. 

Early, Miss Ellen A., Wellesley 
Farms. 

Earnshaw, Albert F., Portland, 
Maine. 

Eaton, Henry, Winchester. 

Eccles, James, Southborough. 

Edlmann, Miss Violet, Wellesley 
Farms. 

Edson, John F., Lynnfield. 

Edson, Miss Margaret, Roxbury. 

Edwards, Clarence J., Milton. 

Edwards, John H., Waverly. 

Eliot, Mrs. Christopher R. ? Bos- 
ton. 

Ellice, Miss Laura R., Auburn- 
dale. 

Elliott, Robert H., Lowell. 

Ellison, Mrs. E. H., Newton. 

Elson, Alfred W., Belmont. 

Ely, Mrs. C. C, Brookline. 

Emery, Frederick L., Lexington. 

Emery, Mrs. William R., Woburn. 

Eno, Mrs. L. Joseph, Bradford. 

Ericson, Dr. Erica, Boston. 

Ernst, Mrs. William B., Jamaica 
Plain. 

Estabrook, Miss M. B., Worcester. 

Estabrooks, Dr. John W., Boston. 

Evans, Mrs. David J., Boston. 

Evans, Henry S., East Strouds- 
burg, Pa. 

Everett, Rev. Edward, Boston. 

Everett, Herbert E., Philadel- 
phia, Pa. 

Everit, Richard L., Barre. 

Fales, Herbert E., West Newton. 

Fallon, William J., Roslindale. 

Farley, Mrs. J. L., Needham. 

Farlow, Mrs. William G., Cam- 
bridge. 

Farnsworth, Custer Lee, Lancas- 
ter. 

Farr, Merle W., Reading. 

Farren, Rev. Merritt A., Boston. 

Farrington, Edward I., Wey- 
mouth Heights. 



ANNUAL MEMBERS 



159 



Faust, Oliver C, Boston. 
Fay, Thornton, 0. M., Westboro. 
Fearing 1 , Mrs. George R., Boston. 
Felton, Herbert L., West Newton. 
Fenner, Mrs. A. Truman, South 

Braintree. 
Fenno, Albert E., Revere. 
Ferguson, Miss Margaret C, 

Wellesley. 
Feronetti, James, East Boxford. 
Ferrin, Mrs. Frank M., Newton. 
Field, Mrs. S. Olin, Norwich, 

N. Y. 
Fischer, Eugene N., Sharon. 
Fish, A. J., New Bedford. 
Fish, George L., South Billerica. 
Fisher, Gordon, Woburn. 
Fiske, David L., Grafton. 
Fitz, Charles E., Arlington. 
Fitz, Mrs. Charles E., Arlington. 
Fletcher, Miss Effie J., Kendal 

Green. 
Flint, Mrs. Albert F., Wayland. 
Flood, Mrs. Mary, Woburn. 
Flye, Miss Grace J., Winthrop. 
Fogg, Mrs. George P., Brookline. 
Follen, Miss Josephine P., Na- 

hant. 
Foote, Mrs. Harriett R., Marble- 
head. 
Forbes, Stewart A., Ipswich. 
Foster, Miss Agnes W., Brewster. 
Foster, William T., Arlington. 
Fox, John W., Woburn. 
Fraser, Herbert C, Newton. 
Fredey, Mrs. Alice A., Newton. 
French, Carroll B., Lynnfield. 
French, Dr. C. E., Lowell. 
French, Mrs. Charles H., Canton. 
French, Clarence H., West Rox- 

bury. 
French, Mrs. George Edward, 

Wayland. 
Frenier, Frank, Hebronville. 
Frogatt, Mrs. J., East Orange, 

N. J. 
Frost, Mrs. William, Melrose. 
Fuller, Mrs. George A., Acushnet. 



Gage, Mrs. Frank H., Swamp- 
scott. 

Gage, L. Merton, Natick. 

Gallagher, Percival, Brookline. 

Garbutt, Andrew, Holliston. 

Gardner, Mrs. Joseph E., South 
Weymouth. 

Garland, John, Wellesley Hills. 

Gately, Mrs. Mary A., Boston. 

Gattrell, Charles, Newburyport. 

Gauld, Mrs. James M., Roslin- 
dale. 

Gavin, Philip A., East Norton. 

Gay, Herbert, North Attleboro. 

Gayton, Mrs. Theora M., Maiden. 

Geddes, Mrs. J., Brookline. 

de Gersdorff, Mrs. Carl A., Stock- 
bridge. 

Gibbs, Mrs. R. M., Waltham. 

Gibson, Charles E., West New- 
ton. 

Gibson, Mr. L. E., Melrose High- 
lands. 

Gilbert, Dr. Arthur W., Boston. 

Gillett, Mrs. Lena G., Littleton. 

Gilmore, Albert F., Watertown. 

Gilmore, Ernest D., Attleboro. 

Gilmore, Howard P., Westboro. 

Glancy, Frank D., Chestnut Hill. 

Glass, Herbert D. H., Norwood, 
Pa. 

Gleason, Herbert W., Boston. 

Glynn, Mrs. Howard S., Wake- 
field. 

Golby, Walter H., Jamaica Plain. 

Goodale, L. B., Danvers. 

Gordon, George, Beverly. 

Gordon, John G., Lowell. 

Gordon, Robert M., Goffstown, 
N. H. 

Gorney, Elijah S., Boston. 

Gould, Mrs. Frank, Towson, Md. 

Grassen, F. J., Roxbury. 

Graton, Louis, Whitman. 

Graves, Frank W., East Lynn. 

Gray, Paul E., Ward Hill. 

Greenough, Mrs. Henry Vose, 
Brookline. 

Gregg, Mrs. James B., Brookline. 



160 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 



Grey, Robert Melrose, Cienfue- 

gos, Cuba. 
Griffin, Miss Delia L, Jamaica 

Plain. 

Grossmann, Louis C, Jamaica 
Plain. 

Groves, George F., Centerville. 

Guenther, Mr. Edward W., Tren- 
ton, N. J. 

Guild, Mrs. S. Eliot, Boston. 

Guppy, Benjamin U., Melrose. 

Gurney, Harold P., Whitman. 

Hadley, Mrs. Amos, Wayland. 

Hall, Charles A., Atlantic. 

Hall, Chas. F. A., M. D., New- 
buryport. 

Hall, Miss F. Josephine, Wal- 
tham. 

Hall, Mrs. George E., Dedham. 

Hall, Miss Gertrude M., Brook- 
line. 

Hall, Joseph B., Cambridge. 

Hall, L. Glenn, Cambridge. 

Hall, Miss Virginia, Boston. 

Hallett, Mrs. Nelson A., Newton- 
ville. 

Hallstrom, David 0., Dorchester. 

Hamel, Claude C, Amherst, Ohio. 

Hamilton, Miss Annie Lee, M. D., 
Boston. 

Hamilton, Dr. Robert D., New- 
buryport. 

Hanks, Mrs. Anna, Boston. g 

Hanley, Mrs. M. J., Brookline. 

Harding, Emor H., Boston. 

Hardy, John D., Boston. 

Hardy, John H. Jr., Littleton. 

Harnedy, James G., Brookline. 

Harrington, Mrs. C. W., Peter- 
borough, N. H. 

Harrington, George H., Lincoln. 

Harris} Charles Parker, Cam- 
bridge. 

Hartmann, Arnold, Cambridge. 

Harvey, Mrs. Arthur C, Welles- 
ley Hills. 

Harwood, Mrs. Sydney, Newton. 

Haskel, William L., Northbor- 
ough. 



Hastings, Francis, Hingham. 

Hatch, Mrs. Arthur T., Cam- 
bridge. 

Hathaway, Howard W., Ports- 
mouth, R. I. 

Hathaway, Walter D., New Bed- 
ford. 

Hathaway, William W., Brock- 
ton. 

Hawken, Thomas, Austin, Texas. 

Hay, Daniel, Plymouth. 

Hayes, Herbert W., Waban. 

Hayward, Henry Chamberlain, 
Norfolk. 

Hayward, Mrs. W. E., Ipswich. 

Heald, Philip C, Wilton, N. H. 

Heard, Miss Blanche E., Way- 
land. 

Heath, Albert J., Framingham. 

Heath, Mrs. Albert J., Framing- 
ham. 

Heckel, Frank P., Columbia, Pa. 

Henduson, Harold H., West New- 
bury. 

de Heredia, Mrs. Carlos M., 
Lenox. 

Herlihy, William P., Cambridge. 

Herrick, Miss Mary A., Maiden. 

Hetherston, Mrs. Cora, Everett. 

Hetzel, George, Woburn. 

Hibbard, Miss Ann, West Rox- 
bury. 

Higbee, Charles R., Hyde Park. 

Higbee, Harry George, Sharon. 

Higginson, Mrs. Alexander H., 
South Lincoln. 

Higginson, Mrs. Frederic, Brook- 
line. 

High, Walter E., Manchester, 
N. H. 

Hildreth, Miss Ella F., Westford. 

Hill, Arthur Dehon, Boston. 

Hill, C. H., Emporia, Kans. 

Hill, Frederick W., Maiden. 

Hill, John E., Providence, R. I. 

Hippee, Miss Marguerite B., Des 
Moines, la. 

Hoehle, Miss M. Louise, Roxbury. 

Hoffman, Mrs. Ella G., Wellesley 
Hills. 



ANNUAL MEMBERS 



161 



Holbrook, Mrs. Frederick, Brat- 

tleboro, Vt. 
Holbrow, Charles, Brighton. 
Hollingsworth, Mrs. Sumner, 

Boston. 
Holmes, Eber, Halifax. 
Hoist, Mrs. Engelhardt W., Mt. 

Vernon, N. H. 
Holsworth, Wayne C, Cambridge. 
Homans, Miss Katharine A., Bos- 
ton. 
Hood, Frederic C, Brookline. 
Hooper, Oliver Furbish, So. Wey- 
mouth. 
Horak, John, Lynn. 
Home, Richard B., Belmont. 
Houghton, Frederic 0., Milton. 
Houghton, Mrs. Frederic 0., Mil- 
ton. 
Houghton, Miss Elizabeth, Ar- 
lington Heights. 
Howard, Miss Alice M., Little- 
ton Common. 
Howard, F. A., South Easton. 
Howard, Mrs. Mary L., So. 

Easton. 
Howard, Mrs. Philip B., South 

Lincoln. 
Howard, W. H., Milford. 
Howden, Thomas, Hudson. 
Howe, Henry S., Brookline. 
Howe, Prof. Marshall A., Pleas- 

antville, N. Y. 
Howe, Ralph, Chicago, 111. 
Howell, Mrs. George D., Cam- 
bridge. 
Howes, Miss L. Gertrude, Rox- 

bury. 
Ho worth, Thomas, Nashua, N. H. 
Hoxie, Edward Ely, Boston. 
Hover, Charles, Chestnut Hill. 
Hubbard, Allen, Newton Center. 
Hubbard, Eliot, Jr., Cambridge. 
Hughes, Thomas H., New Bed- 
ford. 
Hultman, Eugene C, Boston. 
Hume, Mrs. Archibald M., Mel- 
rose. 
Humphreys, James, Dedham. 



Humphreys, Mrs. James, Ded- 
ham. 

Hunneman, Miss Elizabeth A., 
Roxbury. 

Hunt, Mrs. Daniel C, Haverhill. 

Hunt, Edgar N., Boston. 

Hunt, Mrs. Helen A., Weymouth. 

Hurley, E. R,, Closter, N. J. 

Husk, H. M., Newburyport. 

Hutchins, Mrs. Edward W., Bos- 
ton. 

Igo, Mrs. G. S., Indianola, Iowa. 

Jackman, Mrs. Charles L., Con- 
cord. 

Jackson, Mrs. George W., New- 
ton Centre. 

Jackson, Mrs. James, Boston. 

Jackson, Mrs. Roland, Swamp- 
scott. 

Jameson, Holder W., Melrose. 

Jardine, Miss Margaret I., Bos- 
ton. 

Jelly, Mrs. Wm. M., Annisquam. 

Jenkins, Allen J., Shrewsbury. 

Jenkins, Edwin, Lenox. 

Jenkins, Thornton, Maiden. 

Jenks, Albert R., West Acton. 

Jenness, Cyrus F., Waban. 

Jennings, Miss Harriet Thayer, 
Boston. 

Jensen, Mrs. Charles A., Welles- 
ley Hills. 

Johnson, Miss Emma F., Scituate. 

Johnson, George M., Concord. 

Johnson, John M., Liberty, Ind. 

Johnston, John Robert, Jamaica 
Plain. 

Jones, Evan H., Waterbury. 

Jones, Miss Helen S., Brooklyn. 

Jones, Mrs. Mai R., Reading. 

Judd, George E., Boston. 

Kaffenburgh, Mrs. Albert W., 
Brookline. 

Kaler, John T., Sharon. 

Keeler, Charles H., Newton High- 
lands. 

Keeler, J. N., Wollaston. 



162 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 



Keith, Mrs. J. L., Grafton. 

Kellaway, Herbert J., Newton 
Center. 

Kelly, Howard S., Brighton. 

Kemp, J. A., Little Silver, N. J. 

Kendall, Mrs. Charles E., Win- 
chester. 

Kennedy, Albert J., Boston. 

Kennedy, Miss Florence M., 
Wobnrn. 

Kennedy, W. J., Chestnut Hill. 

Kilham, Miss Frances R., Bev- 
erly. 

Kimball, Mrs. A. G., New Britain, 
Conn. 

Kimball, Mrs. Joseph S., Beach 
Bluff. 

Kimball, Mrs. Paul, Milton. 

Kimball, Mrs. Robert, Ipswich. 

King, Mrs. Robert Cushman, Mai- 
den. 

Kingman, Mrs. Herbert S., Som- 
erville. 

Kirby, Mrs. Helen Guthrie, Cam- 
bridge. 

Kirkegaard, John, Bedford. 

Kirkham, Mrs. W. B., Spring- 
field. 

Kirkpatrick, Mrs. E. A., Leomin- 
ster. 

Kirshen, Max S., Brookline. 

Kitchin, Mrs. Mary W., Law- 
rence. 

Kitson, Fred, Boston. 

Kleiner, William H, Boston. 

Kloss, Mrs. Abbie Cornelia, 
Townsend Harbor. 

Knowles, Samuel, South Easton. 

Knowlton, Harold W., Auburn- 
dale. 

Koehler, Hans J., Roslindale. 

Kunan, Ernst, Holbrook. 

Kunderd, A. E., Goshen, Ind. 

Kussmaul, Ernest F., Jamaica 
Plain. 

Lafabregue, J., Bellport, L. I. 
Lane, Ernest P., Lynnfield. 
Lane, Joseph J., New York, N. Y. 
Land, Miss Beatrice M., Melrose. 



Langeler, H., New York, N. Y. 
Langmaid, Miss Bertha, Boston. 

Lano, William Piatt, Brookline. 

Latham, Benoi M., Mansfield. 

Laurie, Robert, Stoughton. 

Lavis, Fred, White Plains, N. Y. 

Lawrence, Harry V., Falmouth. 

Lawrence, Miss Nancy B., Rox- 
bury. 

Lazenby, Francis, Jamaica Plain. 

Leach, C. Arthur, So. Hamilton. 

Leary, Dr. Timothy, Jamaica 
Plain. 

Leonard, Avery B., Roslindale. 

Lesh, Mrs. John H, Newton Cen- 
ter. 

Leslie, Perley, Haverhill. 

Leuthy, A., Roslindale. 

Lewis, E. L., So. Easton. 

Lewis, E. L., Taunton. 

Libbey, Mrs. Annie E., Newton 
Centre. 

Liffler, Mrs. Charles, Jr., Cam- 
bridge. 

Linscott, Mrs. Frank K., Wollas- 
ton. 

Little, Thomas W., Cos Cob, 
Conn. 

Littlefield, Miss Maude H, 
Woburn. 

Long, Bayard, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Long, Charles Albert Eugene, 
Matinicus, Me. 

Loring, Mrs. Thacher, Boston. 

Lothrop, Chester H, Lexington. 

Lothrop, Mrs. Francis Bacon, 
Manchester. 

Lowden, Ronald Douglas, Ros- 
lindale. 

Luddy, Mrs. Mary, West Rox- 
bury. 

Lumsden, David, Washington, 
D. C. 

Lund, Mrs. Fred B., Boston. 

Lurvey, Miss Susie A., Melrose. 

Lyman, Herbert, Boston. 

Lyman, Mrs. Jesse P., Boston. 

Lyman, Mrs. Ronald T., Boston. 

Lynch, Frank A., Belmont. 

Lyon, Mrs. David G., Cambridge. 



ANNUAL MEMBERS 



163 



MacConney, Mrs. Jessie B., Rock- 
land. 
Mack, Mrs. Elizabeth W., New- 
ton. 
Mack, Roy, Lexington. 
Mackie, Mrs. David Ives, New 

York, N. Y. 
Mackinnon, Roderick H., Wel- 

lesley. 
Macleod, Mrs. M. P., Mattapan. 
Mann, Alfred E., Milton. 
Mann, Charles W., Methuen. 
Manning, Mrs. Charles B., Man- 
chester, N. H. 
Mansfield, Mrs. Bessie R., West- 
borough. 
Mansfield, Frederick H., Dorches- 
ter. 
Marble, Edwin H., Worcester. 
Marion, John T., Woburn. 
Marlier, Felix, Dorchester. 
Marshall, R., Detroit, Mich. 
Marquis, William B., Brookline. 
Martin, Mrs. Willard I., Cam- 
bridge. 
Mason, Charles E., Hingham. 
Mason, Miss Flora L., Taunton. 
Mathewson, Miss Rena, Clifton- 
dale. 
Mattson, Nils H., Newton Center. 
Mauthorne, Miss Suzanne M., 

Brookline. 
Maxwell, Mrs. Frank, Duxbury. 
May, Miss Adelina, Brockton. 
May, Mrs. John Shepard, Rox- 

bury. 
Maynard, Mrs. Harry E., Lynn- 
field. 
McCarthy, Mrs. Charles D., Mai- 
den. 
McCourt, J. E., Newton High- 
lands. 
McCullagh, Mrs. Frank R., Rox- 

bury. 
Mcintosh, D. L., Alpine, N. J. 
Mclntyre, John, Simsbury, Conn. 
Mclsaac, Stuart, East Weymouth. 
McLean, David R., Beverly 

Farms. 
McLerie, David, Chestnut Hill. 



Mead, George V., Boston. 
Meagher, Frank T., Milton. 
Melius, J. T., Wellesley. 
Mercer, Mrs. William R., Doyles- 

town, Pa. 
Merriam, Bernard F., Framing- 
ham. 

Merrill, George M., Jamaica 
Plain. 

Michie, Alexander J., Dorchester. 

Mikell, Miss Julia Whiton, Hing- 
ham. 

Millett, Charles H., Melrose 
Highlands. 

Milliken, Mrs. Arthur N., Boston. 

Milmore, Mrs. Lois B., Swamp- 
scott. 

Minott, Charles W., Melrose 
Highlands. 

Mitchell, James, Jamaica Plain. 

Mitchell, S. Roger, Purchase, 
N. Y. 

Mix, William F., Cambridge. 

Mixter, Dr. Samuel J., Boston. 

Moffat t, Mrs. Maud A., Dorches- 
ter. 

Moody, S. Irving, Brockton. 

Moore, Mrs. Clifford H., Cam- 
bridge. 

Moore, Mrs. Edward Caldwell, 
Cambridge. 

Moore, Harry F., Bedford. 

Morgan, F. B., New York, N. Y. 

Morris, John, Hyde Park. 

Morrison, B. Y., Takoma Park, 
D. C. 

Morrison, George, Chestnut Hill. 

Morse, Charles H., Goffstown, 
N. H. 

Morse, Frank E., Boston. 

Moseley, B. P. P., Ipswich. 

Movins, Hallam L., Boston. 

Muller, R. T., Amherst. 

Munroe, Harry W., Lynnfield. 

Munson, E. Malcolm, South 
Dartmouth. 

Munson, Mrs. George A., South 
Dartmouth. 

Murphy, Thomas, Brookline. 



164 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 



Myriek, Miss C. Elizabeth, West 
Newbury. 

Nason, Mrs. Arthur C, Newbury - 

port. 
Negus, Sam P., Boston. 

Nehrling, Arno H., Ithaca, N. Y. 

Neilsen, Malcolm H., Brighton. 

Nelson, Miss Adelaide, Roxbury. 

Nesmith, Mrs. Thomas, Lowell. 

Nickerson, Miss Frances, New- 
tonville. 

Nickerson, Harold S., Essex. 

Nickerson, Mrs. William G., Ded- 
ham. 

Niles, Mrs. Charles F., Hopedale. 

Nixon, J. Arthur, Taunton. 

Norberg, Edward, Arlington. 

Norley, Benjamin R., Roslindale. 

Norris, Z. A., Needham. 

Northrup, William B., Chelms- 
ford. 

Norton, Carl J., Northampton. 

Nye, Henry C, Brookline. 

'Brien, D. W., Boston. 

O'Connell, Mrs. John C, Dorches- 
ter Center. 

O'Connor, Vincent, Beachmont. 

Olin, Mrs. Edwin Read, Brain- 
tree. 

Orr, H. W., Newtonville. 

Osbon, Mrs. Charles B., Medford. 

Osgood, James D., Peabody. 

Osgood, Miss Lvdia D., Hancock, 
N. H. 

Osgood, William J., Wellesley 
Hills. 

Otis, Alfred W., Boston. 

Otis, W. C, Woburn. 

Ottley, Miss Alice M., Wellesley. 

Page, Miss Mary S., Chelsea. 
Palmer, Miss Alice W., Holliston. 
Palmer, Frederick E., Brookline. 
Palmer, George H., Chestnut Hill. 
""Parker, A. S., Stoneham. 
Parker, Edward L., Concord. 
Parker, Mrs. F. H., Lawrence. 
Parker, G. A., Hartford, Conn. 



Parker, Mrs. George Lawrence, 
Newton Centre. 

Parker, Mrs. George S., Boston. 

Parker, Horace B., Boston. 

Parker, James F., Plainfield, N. J. 

Parker, Miss Katherine V., So. 

Lancaster. 

Parker, Mrs. W. C, Woburn. 

Parker, Walter M., Manchester, 
N. H. 

Parkinson, Mrs. W. D., Fitch- 
burg. 

Parks, Mrs. Francis R., Chestnut 
Hill. 

Parsons, Charles E., Nevada City, 
Calif. 

Pastene, Albert A., Boston. 

Patch, Roland H., Storrs, Conn. 

Patterson, Mrs. Henry E., Rock- 
land. 

Patterson, William, Wollaston. 

Paul, Miss Anne M., Boston. 

Paul, William Alden, Boston. 

Payson, Miss Grace M., Mag- 
nolia. 

Peabody, Mrs. W. Rodman, Hyde 
Park. 

Pearse, Miss Alice W., Roxbury. 

Peckham, Mrs. Wheeler H., New 
Rochelle, N. Y. 

Pederzini, Peter, Medfield. 

Peet, Miss Harriet E., Cambridge. 

Peirce, Miss Bertha, So. Boston. 

Pembroke, A. A., Beverly. 

Penman, John L., Cambridge. 

Penman, Mrs. John L., Cam- 
bridge. 

Penn, William, Boston. 

Perkins, F. C, Cliftondale. 

Perkins, Frank E., Abington. 

Perkins, Harry D., Brookline. 

Perkins, Mrs. John Carroll, 
Seattle, Wash. 

Perkins, Merritt H., Denver, 
Colo. 

Perkins, Russell, Hampton, N. H. 

Perotti, Paul, East Boston. 

Perry, Mrs. Arthur P., Jamaica 
Plain. 



AX X UAL MEMBERS 



105 



Peters. Mi-:? Constance E.. Bos- 
ton. 

Peterson, John A.. Cambridge. 

Philbriek. Miss Eliza, Newton 
Centre. 

Phillips, George A.. Dedhain. 

Phillips, Mrs. Gertrude W.. 
Swampscott. 

Phillips, Airs. J. Duncan. Tops- 
field. 

Phillips. Mrs. John G.. Sharon. 

Phinney. H A., Arlington. 

Phinney. Mrs. H. A.. Arlington. 

Phinney, John I.. Cambridge. 

Phipps. Mrs. Cadis. Brookline. 

Pickett, Charles M., Jamaica 
Plain. 

Pickup. George. Roxbury. 

Pierce. Elmore Allen. Woburn. 

Pineauit. Z. E.. Fairhaven. 

Pineo. James LeRoy, Mattapan. 

Plimpton. Mrs. Harold, Hinghain. 

Pond. Bremer Whidden. Bo>:on. 

Poor. Mrs. Clarence H.. Beverly 
Farms. 

Pope. Mrs. Henrietta M., Boston. 

Porter, George William. Agawam. 

Porter. Miss Helen Louise, Dan- 
vers. 

Post. Dr. Abner, Auburndale. 

Potter. Charles, West Bovlston. 

Pratt. Alfred R., Weston. 

Pratt, Miss Sarah E.. South Sud- 
bury. 

Preston, Elwyn G.. Lexington. 

Preston. Mrs. Richard G.. Cam- 
bridge. 

Prior. Mrs. William A., Wobum. 

Pritchard, John. Bedford Hills, 
X. Y. 

Proctor, Dr. Percy C. Gloucester. 

Proctor. Mrs. Percy C Glouces- 
ter. 

Proctor. Thomas M.. Wfentham. 

Prouty, Lewis I., Cambridge. 

Purdon, Miss Maria. Hyde Pork. 

Purdy. 0. X.. Jr.. Wellesley. 

Purple. William H.. Canandaigua, 
X. Y. 



Putnam, Dr. Frank W., West 
Newton. 

Quinsler. Miss Genevieve M.. 

Brookline. 

Raehemann. Mrs. Felix, Read- 
ville. 

Raez. J. A.. Jamaica Plain. 

Randall. Charles F.. Boston. 

Randall. Edward E.. Reading. 

Ray. G. Everett. Marblehead, 

Read. Miss Carrie E.. Barre. 

Ream. L. S.. Marshheld. 

Redmond. George, Billerica. 

Reed. Charles L.. West Newbury. 

Reed, H. B.. Auburndale. 

Reed. Percy C. West Medwav. 

Rees. Prof. Ralph W.. Ithaca. 
X. Y. 

Render. Alfred. Jamaica Plain. 

Reiche. Mrs. Ruth Parry, Arling- 
ton. 

Reid. John. Jr.. New Roehelle. 
X. Y. 

Remington, Mrs. Louise M.. Bos- 
ton. 

Reploaie. W. H., Hagerstown, 
link 

Renter. Louis J.. Watertown. 

Rhinelander, Rt. Rev. P. M. 3 
Washington. D. C. 

Rice. Mrs. Arthur W.. Readville. 

Rice. Miss Dorothy G.. Waban. 

Rice. H. L.. Boston. 

Rich. Mrs. Thomas F.. Maiden. 

Richards. Ralph W.. Canton. 

Richardson. John. Chestnut Hill. 

Rideout. Benjamin W.. Xeedham. 

Robb, Peter B.. Whitmsville. 

Roberts. Arthur E.. Reading. 

Robertson. John. Chestnut Hill. 

Robertson. Peter. Lexington. 

Robinson. Miss Josie B __- 
Basil. Ohio. 

Robinson. Mrs. Julia M.. Xeed- 
ham. 

Roby, Mrs. Harlan B.. Concord. 
X. H. 

Rodgers. Miss Edith D.. Boston. 

Rodgers. Miss Frances S., Boston. 



166 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 



Rogers, Alfred E. T., Prides 
Crossing. 

Rogers, Andrew K., Readville. 

Roland, Robert H., Nahant. 

Rolfe, Miss Marjorie, Weymouth. 

Rollins, William, Boston. 

Root, George W., West Roxbury. 

Rorrie, Thomas N., Ellis. 

Rose, Miss Edith, Roxbury. 

Rosenthal, Wolf, Boston. 

Ross, Miss Lucy C, Newtonville. 

Ross, Mrs. Thowald S., Cam- 
bridge. 

Rourke, John J., Lynn. 

Roy, W. Ormiston, Montreal, 
Can. 

Rugg, Harold Goddard, Hanover, 
N. H. 

Russell, Mrs. Charles F., Boston. 

Russell, Miss Helen, Worcester. 

Rust, Frances I., Cambridge. 

Rust, William C, Jamaica Plain. 

Rutherford, William D. F., Nor- 
folk. 

Ryan, Harold A., Cambridge. 

Ryder, Robert L., Boston. 

Rynsaardt, W. N., Jamaica Plain. 

Sabine, Mrs. Charles W., Chest- 
nut Hill. 
Sanborn, Edward W., Boston. 
Sankey, Mrs. Bethia L., Cohasset. 
Santeson, Miss Helen H., West 

Newton. 
Santheson, C. J., Island Creek. 
Sargent, F. Carroll, Salem. 
Sargent, George H., Warner, 

N. H. 
Saunders, Prof. A. P., Clinton, 

N. Y. 
Saunders, Maurice M., Boston. 
Sawyer, Charles H., Newton 

Highlands. 
Sawyer, Miss Grace M., Jamaica 

Plain. 
Sawyer, I. H., Topsfield. 
Sawyer, John F., Reading. 
Sawyer, Mrs. William D., Dover, 

N. H. 



Schirmer, Charles G., Chestnut 

Hill. 
Schmitt, Louis Victor, Roslindale. 

Schuh, Albert L., Buffalo, N. Y. 

Schumacher, Miss Emma, Mar- 
blehead. 

Schwinck, Miss Esther, Cam- 
bridge. 

Scott, A. C, East Weymouth. 

Scott, Alfred, Cambridge. 

Scott, Mrs. Alma T., East Wey- 
mouth. 

Scott, Mrs. George C, Framing- 
ham. 

Seagrove, Leonard C, Hyde Park. 

Seal, Mrs. Jessie L., San Fran- 
cisco, Calif. 

Sears, Miss Charlotte L., Cam- 
bridge. 

Sears, Mrs. Richard, Boston. 

Seaver, Llewellyn D., Roxbury. 

Seaver, Robert, Jamaica Plain. 

Seccomb, Eben D., Brookline. 

Secrist, Mrs. Henry T., Melrose. 

Seelye, Miss Gertrude C., Welles- 
ley College. 

Sexton, Edwin, Elsmere, N. Y. 

Shaw, Rev. Arthur Wynne, Dr- 
chester. 

Shaw, Mrs. Brackley, Chestnut 
Hill. 

Sheldon, Frank M., Newton. 

Shepardson, Frank 0., Mansfield. 

Sherman, Mrs. J. P. R., Newton. 

Short, Miss E. Genevieve, Attle- 
boro. 

Shreve, Henry M., Cambridge. 

Shultiz, Newton, Winchester. 

Shumway, Franklin P., Melrose. 

Silva, Francis M., East Wey- 
mouth. 

Sim, William, Cliftondale. 

Simmons, Miss Annie E. E., 
^ Northampton. 

Simpson, Mrs. James E., Methuen. 

Slade, Miss Margaret B., Boston. 

Slaiter, Walter, Roxbury. 

Slate, George L., Geneva, N. Y. 
iSlavter, John T. H, Roslindale. 
iSlinn, B. S., New York, N. Y. 



ANNUAL MEMBERS 



167 



Sloet, Jacob, Milton. 

Smith, Miss Edna G., Cambridge. 

Smith, Mrs. Ella N., Auburndale. 

Smith, George A., Chelsea. 

Smith, George N., Wellesley 
Hills. 

Smith, Mrs. Henry P., Boston. 

Smith, J. D., M. D., Dayton, Ohio. 

Smith, Mrs. James Newell, Hy- 
annis. 

Smith, Mrs. Roger D., Dedham. 

Sohier, Louisa A., Wellesley Hills. 

Spalding, Dr. Fred M., Brook- 
line. 

Spaulding, Philip R., Weston. 

Spaulding, Mrs. Samuel S., 
Springfield Center. 

Speare, Mrs. Lewis R., Newton 
Center. 

Spencer, S. E., Woburn. 

Spinney, Frank C, Lynn. 

Spofford, Ralph, Haverhill. 

Sprague, George H., Hamilton. 

Stadtmiller, Miss Lena M., Ja- 
maica Plain. 

Stanton H., Prides Crossing. 

Stanton, Willard F., East Box- 
ford. 

Stark, Miss Mary R., Newton 
Highlands. 

Stearns, Dr. A. Warren, Boston. 

Stearns, Louis C, Bridgewater. 

Stebbins, Mrs. Harry B., Newton. 

Steele, Fletcher, Boston. 

Steinbarger, Mrs. Helen Y., Dor- 
chester. 

Stephen, A. L., Waban. 

Sterling, Mrs. Elmer L., North 
Anson, Me. 

Stevens, Charles T., Plymouth. 

Stevens, Harold, Salem. 

Stevenson, Robert H., Boston. 

Stewart, Miss Dora, Cambridge. 

Stewart, Henry, Waltham. 

Stewart, John W., Martinsburg, 
W. Va. 

Sthen, Mrs. Robert E., Woodford, 
Me. 

Stiles, A. Ralph, Stow. 

Stillwell, C. F., Peoria, HI. 



Stone, Miss Mary P., Boston. 
Stone, Mrs. Robert E., Boston. 

Storey, Mrs. Richard C, Boston. 

Storrow, Mrs. E. C, Needham. 

Story, Miss Lucy B., Ipswich. 

Strobel, Albert I., Stoneham. 

Studley, Mrs. David B., Orleans. 

Sturgis, Carl L., East Bridge- 
water. 

Sumner, Mrs. Fred W., Canton. 

Swan, William, Milton. 

Swanson, Miss Edith I., Matta- 
pan. 

Swasey, Paul F., Boston. 

Sweet, Henry N., Boston. 

Sweetzer, Mrs. Caroline L., Wo- 
burn. 

Swett, Vernon B., Newton. 

Swift, Mrs. James M., Boston. 

Swift, Miss Lucy W., Boston, 

Swift, Sherman A., Woburn. 

Swinden, Miss Ellen, Meriden, 
Conn. 

Symmes, Samuel S., Winchester. 

Symonds, William H., Marble- 
head. 

Taft, Miss Clara E., Arlington. 

Tapley, Henry F., Lynn. 

Tarr, Louis E., East Walpole. 

Taylor, Alexander W., Readville. 

Taylor, J. Arthur, State Farm. 

Tenenbone, Harry, Denver, Colo. 

Thatcher, A. E., Dorchester. 

Thayer, Mrs. Arthur W., Dedham. 

Thayer, Clark L., Amherst. 

Thayer, George E., Milford. 

ThaA^er, John E., Jr., Lancaster. 

Thomas, Mrs. Charles D., Her- 
kimer, N. Y. 

Thomas, Dr. Charles M., Melrose. 

Thomas, Mrs. Clara I., Cam- 
bridge. 

Thomas, Mrs. Harold D., Pater- 
son, N. J. 

Thomas, Mrs. James R., Charles- 
ton, W. Va. 

Thomas, Mrs. Mary S., Lawrence, 
Kans. 

Thommen, Gustave, Miami, Fla. 



168 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 



Thompson, Charles T., Wilming- 
ton. 

Thompson, Mrs. Frank V., Brigh- 
ton. 

Thompson, George S., Westboro. 

Thurber, Mrs. William B., Mil-, 
ton. 

Tierney, Thomas F., Watertown. 

Tillinghast, Joseph J., Hyde 
Park. 

Tilton, Miss Annie Eugenia, Cam- 
bridge. 

Tilton, Miss Ednah B., Boston. 

Tilton, George H., Melrose. 

Tilton, Dr. J. 0., Lexington. 

Tinkham, Miss Florence L., 
Springfield. 

Tinkham, Mrs. Herbert L., Brock- 
ton. 

Titcomb, Miss Charlotte A., Ja- 
maica Plain. 

Todd, Miss M. E,, Boston. 

Tomb, George Robert, Boston. 

Tower, Mrs. Kate Denig, Boston. 

Townsend, Mrs. Charles E., New- 
ton Center. 

Townsend, Mrs. Richard S., Bos- 
ton. 

Tozzer, Mrs. Arthur C, Brook- 
line. 

Tracy, B. Hammond, Wenham. 

Traiser, Charles H., Readville. 

Tripp, Frank G., New Bedford. 

Tufts, James A., Jr., Exeter, 
N. H. 

Tufts, Mrs. Jeannette W., Ja- 
maica Plain. 

Tufts, Mrs. William Sudbury. 

Turner, Miss Helen, Brookline. 

Turner, Miss Mabel E., Maiden. 

Tyson, Mrs. Russell, Chicago, 111. 

Ufford, Charles A., Dorchester. 
Uffman, John T. W., No. Attle- 
boro. 

Vail, Dr. Harris H., Cincinnati, 

Ohio. 
Varney, Justin E., Lawrence. 



Vasseur, Louis, Milton. 

Vaughan, Mrs. Henry G., Sher- 
born. 

Yiles, Edgar F., Waltham. 

Wade, Mrs. Winthrop H., Ded- 
ham. 

Waite, W. H., Rumson, N. J. 

Wakefield, Miss Alice, Hudson. 

Walke, William T., Salem. 

Walker, Charles J., Jamaica 
Plain. 

Wallis, Winthrop L., Jamaica 
Plain. 

Ward, Miss Caroline E., Boston. 

Ware, Robert A., Boston. 

Ware, Mrs. Whitman, Boston. 

Warner, Dr. Charles T., Boston. 

Warner, Mrs. Mary E., West Rox- 
bury. 

Warner, Mrs. Roger, Boston. 

Warren, Mrs. George H., Man- 
chester, N. H. 

Waterer, Anthony, 3d., Philadel- 
phia, Pa. 

Waterer, Hosea, Philadelphia, 
Pa. 

Watson, Miss Gertrude, Pittsfield. 

Waxman, Mrs. S. M., Cambridge. 

Wayman, Robert, Bayside, N. Y. 

Weed, Clarence M., Lowell. 

Weeks, Mrs. Henry, Framingham 
Center. 

Wells, Nelson M., Auburndale. 

Wendler, Henry G., Boston. 

Wentworth, Joseph, Boston. 

Wetherbee, Mrs. George H, 
Braintree. 

Wetterlow, Eric H., Manchester. 

Wharton, Mrs. William P., 
Groton. 

Wheeler, George F., Concord. 

Wheeler, Harry A., Lexington. 

Wheeler, Homer J., Boston. 

Wheeler, Myron S., Berlin. 

Wheeler Wilfrid, Jr., Concord. 

Whitaker, Willard E., No. Adams. 

Whitcomb, Arthur D., Brookline. 

White, Miss Alice M., Manton, 
R. I. 



ANNUAL MEMBERS 



169 



White, Donald, Wakefield. 

White, J. Cooke, Brookline. 

White, Mrs. Joseph EL, Brook- 
line. 

White, Peter B., Dover. 

Whiting-, Edward Clark, Cam- 
bridge. 

Whitney, Joseph F., Cincinnati, 
Ohio/ 

Whitney, Leon F., New York, 
N. Y. 

Whittall, Mrs. Matthew J., 
Shrewsbury. 

Whittemore, Miss Elsie, Boston. 

Whittemore, Mrs. P. W., West 
Gloucester. 

Whyte, Arthur J., Manchester. 

Whyte, Daniel, Marblehead. 

Wilder, Charles H., Revere. 

Wilder, Mrs. Edward B., Dor- 
chester. 

Wiles, Mrs. Thomas L., Hingham. 

Willging, Bro. Arnold, Clavton, 
Mo. 

Williams, Mrs. Emile F., Cam- 
bridge. 

Williams, Henry M., Haverhill. 

Williams, Mrs. M. Florence, East 
Norton. 

Williams, Oliver E., Jr., Boston. 

Willis, C. W., Bedford. 

Willis, Mrs. C. W., Bedford. 

Wingate, Miss Mary S., Newton. 

Wilson, John D., Greenwich, 
Conn. 



Wilson, William F., Stoneham. 

Winslow, Mrs. Eva M., Littleton. 

Winsor, Mrs. Kennard, Chestnut 
Hill. 

Wiswell, Miss Lucia E., Welles- 
ley. 

Witherell, J. P., So. Braintree. 

Wollrath, Albert J., Waltham. 

Wood, Miss Anna E., Brookline. 

Wood, Miss Carolyn E., Dorches- 
ter. 

Wood Eben T., West Bridge- 
water. 

Woodbury, Mrs. Clara Swasey, 
Beverly. 

Worthington, Miss Julia H., Ded- 
ham. 

Wright, Miss Alice, West New- 
ton. 

Wright, Donald K., Orange, Conn. 

Wright, Richardson, New York, 
N. Y. 

Wyman, Wendell, Sharon. 

Wyman, Mrs. Wendell, Sharon. 

Yonsen, Albert, Dedham. 
Young, Mrs. Edward L., Jr., 

Brookline. 
Young, Mrs. George H., Dedham. 



Zaeh, Leon Henry, Brookline. 
Zanky, John, Southwick. 
Zirnmer, Miss M. L., Jamaica 
Plain. 



Form of Bequest 



I give and bequeath to the Massachusetts Horticul- 
tural Society the sum of 

to be used as the Trustees may direct for the promo- 
tion of horticulture. 





Date Due 




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